Lsn 3 Egypt

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Published on October 10, 2007

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Egypt:  Egypt Lsn 3 Upper and Lower Egypt:  Upper and Lower Egypt Ancient Egypt was divided into two regions: Upper and Lower Egypt. Lower (northern) Egypt consisted of the Nile River’s delta made by the river as it empties into the Mediterranean. Upper (southern) Egypt was the long, narrow strip of ancient Egypt located south of the Delta. Nubia:  Nubia Land to the south of Egypt between the Nile’s first and sixth cataracts Cataracts are steep descents of the water of a river, usually making navigation difficult or impossible Lacked Egypt’s broad floodplain and therefore was less able to agriculturally support a large population Characteristics of a Civilization:  Characteristics of a Civilization Intensive agricultural techniques Specialization of labor Cities A social hierarchy Organized religion and education Development of complex forms of economic exchange Development of new technologies Advanced development of the arts. (This can include writing.) Slide5:  The Nile River Basin: A Ribbon of Green Agriculture Agriculture:  Agriculture Herodotus called Egypt the “Gift of the Nile” Egyptians took advantage of the Nile’s annual floods to become an especially productive agricultural region After the floods receded in late summer, cultivators could go into the floodplains in late summer and sow their seeds without extensive preparation of the soil Agriculture:  Agriculture Expanded agriculture led to expanded populations and demand for increased production Cultivators moved beyond the Nile’s immediate floodplains building dikes to protect their fields from floods and catchment basins to store water for irrigation Shaduf:  Shaduf To lift water from the canal Egyptians used a shaduf, a large pole balanced on a crossbeam with a rope and bucket on one end and a heavy counter weight at the other. When the rope was pulled, the bucket would be lowered into the canal. The counterweight would raise the bucket. The farmer would then carry the bucket to the field and water it. Specialization:  Specialization Brewing and Breadmaking Plowing and Sowing Sailing Harvesting papyrus and Herding Specialization:  Specialization Nile societies were much slower than their Mesopotamian counterparts to adopt metal tools and weapons Did develop pottery, textile manufacture, woodworking, leather production, stonecutting, and masonry occupations Egyptian pottery makers Specialization:  Specialization Building a pyramid would require Laborers Architects Engineers Craftsmen Artists Cities:  Cities Cities:  Cities Relatively few cities and high administrative centralization Memphis Founded by Menes around 3100 BC as capital of a united Upper and Lower Egypt Located at the head of the Nile River Delta Thebes Administrative center of Upper Egypt Seat of worship for Amon Religion and Education:  Religion and Education Religion and Education:  Religion and Education Two main gods were Amon (Thebian deity associated with the sun, creation, fertility, and reproductive forces) and Re (the sun god worshipped at Heliopolis) Eventually the two were combined in the cult of Amon-Re Brief Period of Monotheism:  Brief Period of Monotheism For a brief period Akhentan challenged the Amon-Re cult by proclaiming Aten as the one and only true god Once Akhenaten died, traditional priests restored the Amon-Re cult The sun disc Aten shining on the names of the royal family Mummification:  Mummification In order to prepare a person for the long and hazardous journey before they could enjoy the pleasures of the afterlife, the body of a dead person was preserved by a process called mummification. The Judgment:  The Judgment The Egyptians viewed the heart as the seat of intellect and emotion. Before entering the pleasures of eternity, the dead person had to pass a test in which Anubis, the god of the dead, weighed the person’s heart against Ma’at, the goddess of justice and truth, who was represented by a feather. The Judgment:  The Judgment If the deceased’s good deeds outweighed the bad, then his heart would be as light as the feather (heavy hearts bore the burden of guilt and evil), and Osiris would welcome the newcomer to the next world. If the deceased fell short in his judgment, his body would be eaten by a monster that was part crocodile, part lion, and part hippopotamus. Osiris:  Osiris Patron of the underworld, the dead, and past pharaohs Cult of Osiris demanded observance of high moral standards As lord of the underworld, Osiris had the power to determine who deserved the blessing of immortality and who did not Social Hierarchy:  Social Hierarchy Social Hierarchy:  Social Hierarchy Pharaoh Egyptian kings of a centralized state Claimed to be gods living on earth in human form Bureaucrats Because the pharaoh was an absolute ruler there was little room for a noble class as in Mesopotamia Instead professional military forces and an elaborate bureaucracy of administrators and tax collectors served the central government Patriarchial Vested authority over public and private affairs in men However, more opportunities for women than in Mesopotamia as evidenced by Queen Hatshepsut reigning as pharaoh Peasants and slaves Supplied the hard labor that made complex agricultural society possible Among the slaves were the Hebrews Pharaohs:  Pharaohs Tutankhamun (King Tut) 1334 and 1325 BC Ramesses II 1279-1213 BC Bureaucrats:  Bureaucrats Below the pharaoh, the most powerful officer in the hierarchy was the vizier, the executive head of the bureaucracy The vizier was a prince or a person of exceptional ability. His title is translated as "superintendent of all works of the king". As the supreme judge of the state, the vizier ruled on all petitions and grievances brought to the court. All royal commands passed through his hands before being transmitted to the scribes in his office. The scribes in turn dispatched orders to the heads of distant towns and villages, and dictated the rules and regulations related to the collection of taxes. The king was surrounded by the court, friends and favored people who attained higher administrative positions. The tendency was to fill these positions on the basis of heredity. One of the most ardent wishes of these administrators was to climb the bureaucratic ladder through promotions and to hand their offices to their children Economic Exchange:  Economic Exchange In this scene from the grave of Ipui at Thebes, sailors are seen leaving the boat carrying sacks containing grain. A woman is selling bread and possibly beer (top left), beside her a sailor is exchanging grain for fish. On the right a buyer checks out a cake or a loaf of bread while beside him another is acquiring some vegetables. Economic Exchange:  Economic Exchange The Nile provided excellent transportation which facilitated trade. Nile flows north so boats could ride the currents from Upper to Lower Egypt. Prevailing winds blow almost year-round from the north so by using sails, boats could then make their way back upriver. Economic Exchange:  Economic Exchange Egypt needed to trade because, beside the Nile, it had few natural resources For example, Egypt had very few trees so all its wood came from abroad, especially cedar from Lebanon Much trade between Egypt and Nubia Importance of trade was reflected in the names of southern Egyptian cities Aswan comes from the ancient Egyptian word swene which means “trade” Elephantine owed its name to the elephant ivory trade New Technologies:  New Technologies Ramps and stone-cutting required to build pyramids New Technologies:  New Technologies Papyrus The raw material came from the plant Cyperus papyrus which grew along the banks of the Nile Used not only in the production of paper but also used in the manufacture of boats, rope and baskets Shipbuilding Wooden boats Multiple-oars Sails Rope trusses to strengthen hulls Art and Writing:  Art and Writing Art and Writing:  Art and Writing Pyramids Symbols of the pharaoh’s authority and divine stature; royal tombs Pyramid of Khufu involved the precise cutting and fitting of 2,300,000 limestone blocks with an average weight of 2.5 tons Estimated construction of the Khufu pyramid required 84,000 laborers working 80 days per year for 20 years The Sphinx and Great Pyramid of Khufu at Giza.  Art and Writing:  Art and Writing Hieroglyphs Pictures that were used to write the ancient Egyptian language Originally used to keep records of the king's possessions. Scribes could easily make these records by drawing a picture of a cow or a boat followed by a number. As the language became more complex, more pictures were needed. Eventually the language consisted of more then 750 individual signs. Mesopotamia and Egypt:  Mesopotamia and Egypt Mesopotamia and Egypt:  Mesopotamia and Egypt Next Lesson:  Next Lesson Ancient (Shang and Zhou) China

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