Published on February 10, 2009
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SOMETIMES, THERE IS MUCH CONFUSION BETWEEN A LEADER AND A MANAGER BUT WHAT’S THE DIFFERENCE????
LEADERSHIP MANAGEMENT The ability to Use of authority inherent inﬂuence a group in designated formal rank toward the to obtain compliance from achievement of goals, organizational members, establish mainly to implement direction by a the vision through vision and align outlined strategies by the people towards leader. goals.
“Not all leaders are managers, nor are all managers leaders.”
“Not all leaders are managers, nor are all managers leaders.” SANCTIONED NON-SANCTIONED LEADERSHIP LEADERSHIP Ability to inﬂuence Ability to inﬂuence that arises within that arises outside the formal the formal structure of the structure of the organization organization
Theories that consider personal qualities and characteristics differentiate leaders from non-leaders TRAIT THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP
LEADERS ARE BORN, NOT Theories that consider MADE! personal qualities and characteristics differentiate leaders from non-leaders TRAIT THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP
1990’s “Leaders are not like other people”
1990’s “Leaders are not like other people” isolated traits varied from review to review
BIG FIVE FRAMEWORK Most of the isolated traits that emerged from earlier studies could be subsumed under one of the Big Five ➡EXTRAVERSION -leader emergence ➡CONSCIENTIOUSNESS and OPENNESS TO EXPERIENCE ➡AGREEABLENESS and EMOTIONAL STABILITY
BIG FIVE FRAMEWORK Most of the isolated traits that emerged from earlier studies could be subsumed under one of the Big Five EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE (EI) EMPATHY sensing others’ needs, listening to what others say and don’t say, reading the reactions of others
IMPORTANT POINTS ➡ Traits can predict leadership ➡ Traits do a better job at predicting the emergence of leaders and the appearance of leadership than in actually distinguishing between effective and ineffective leaders
Theories proposing that speciﬁc behaviors differentiate leaders from nonleaders BEHAVIORAL THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP
WE CAN TRAIN Theories proposing PEOPLE TO that speciﬁc behaviors BECOME differentiate leaders LEADERS! from nonleaders BEHAVIORAL THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP
OHIO STATE STUDIES (1) INITIATING STRUCTURE -refers to the extent to which a leader is likely to deﬁne and structure his or her role and those of subordinates in the search for goal attainment. (2)CONSIDERATION -the extent to which a leader is likely to have job relationships characterized by mutual trust, respect for subordinates’ ideas, and regard for their feelings
UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN (1) EMPLOYEE-ORIENTED -emphasizing interpersonal relations; taking a personal interest in the needs of employees, and accepting individual differences among members (2) PRODUCTION-ORIENTED -emphasizing the technical or task aspect of the job
MANAGERIAL GRID •developed by Blake and Mouton •also called the leadership grid •based on the style of concern for people and concern for production
Theories proposing that speciﬁc situations or contexts differentiate leaders from nonleaders CONTINGENCY THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP
LEADERS Theories proposing that EMERGE IN speciﬁc situations or CERTAIN contexts SITUATIONS! differentiate leaders from nonleaders CONTINGENCY THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP
FIEDLER CONTINGENCY MODEL Degree to which the LEADERSHIP situation gives STYLE control to the leader Key Assumption: Leader must fit situation; options to accomplish this: !! Select leader to fit situation !! Change situation to fit leader
Fiedler Contigency Model: The Leader STEP 1: Least Preferred Co-worker (LPC) questionnaire -an instrument that purports to measure whether a person is task- oriented or relationship oriented.
Fiedler Contigency Model: Deﬁning the Situation STEP 2: Leader-member relations -the degree of conﬁdence, trust and respect members have in their leaders (good vs. poor) Task Structure -the degree to which the job assignments are procedurized (high vs. low) Position Power -the degree of inﬂuence a leader has over power variables such as hiring, ﬁring, discipline, promotions and salary increases (strong vs. weak)
Fiedler Contigency Model Findings
Cognitive Resource Theory A theory of leadership that states that the level of stress in a situation is what impacts whether a leader’s intelligence or experience will be more effective. •! Research Support !! Less intelligent individuals perform better in leadership roles under high stress than do more intelligent individuals. !! Less experienced people perform better in leadership roles under low stress than do more experienced people.
SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP THEORY (SLT) (Paul Hersey & Ken Blanchard) A contingency theory that focuses on followers’ readins; the more 'ready' the followers (the more willing and able) the less the need for leader support and supervision. Amount of Follower Readiness LOW HIGH Amount of Leader Support & Supervision Required HIGH LOW
Follower Unwilling Willing Readiness Supportive Monitoring Able Participative Leadership Styles High Task & Unable Directive Relationship Orientations
LEADER-MEMBER EXCHANGE THEORY (LMX)
PATH-GOAL THEORY ROBERT HOUSE
PATH-GOAL THEORY ROBERT HOUSE The leader must help followers attain goals and reduce roadblocks to success
LEADER-PARTICIPATION MODEL Victor Vroom & Philip Yetton • Rule-based decision tree to guide leaders about when and when not to include subordinate participation in decision making • Considers 12 contingency variables to consider whether or not to include subordinates in decision making
CONTEMPORARY ISSUES IN LEADERSHIP
FRAMING: USING WORDS TO SHAPE MEANING AND INSPIRE OTHERS Framing - using language to manage meaning - involves selectively including or excluding facts - leaders use framing to influence how others see and interpret reality. Examples Lawyers shaping their arguments to make their case stronger.
CHARISMATIC LEADERS ➡ CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIP THEORY ➡ Charisma: quot;a certain quality of an individual personality, by virtue of which he is set apart from ordinary men and treated as endowed with supernatural, superhuman, or at least speciﬁcally exceptional powers or qualities”. ➡ uses PASSION as catalyst for generating enthusiasm ➡ Charismatic can be BOTH born and made.
KEY CHARACTERISTICS OF CHARISTMATIC LEADERS 1) Vision & Ariticulation 2) Environmental Sensitivity 3) Sensitivity to follower’s needs 4)Unconventional behavior
BEYOND CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIP Level 5 Leaders - Possess a fifth dimension—a paradoxical blend of personal humility and professional will—in addition to the four basic leadership qualities (individual capability, team skills, managerial competence, ability to stimulate others) - Channel their ego needs away from themselves and into the goal of building a great company Charismatic leaders are seen as effective as employees tend to personally identify with them They take over the crowd and this is noticeable in their reactions and behaviours Crowd is mesmerised, compelled, emotions are revealed VISIONS ARE SEEN AS INSPIRATIONAL
CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIP: GOOD SIDES & BAD SIDES BAD GOOD - People are only receptive to - High proﬁts such leaders in certain - Employees more situations and in crisis hardworking - More employee - Charisma can be used for readiness personal gains (leverage - Captivates audience higher salaries & rewards) Can be DANGEROUS as BUT may be charisma overwhelms workable only in employees and can be given situations manipulative
TRANSACTIONAL LEADERS ➡ Ohio studies, ﬁelders model, path goal theory concern the transactional leader ➡One who guides and motivates followers ➡Establish goals and clarify ➡ Set speciﬁc requirement
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