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Lower limb

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Information about Lower limb
Education

Published on December 1, 2008

Author: ampkmsw

Source: authorstream.com

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1.Psoas : 1.Psoas Origin: 2 Anterior surfaces and lower borders of transverse processes of L1 - L5 and bodies and discs of T12 - L5 Insertion:1 Lesser trochanter Action: Flex the torso and thigh with respect to each other 2.Iliacus : 2.Iliacus Origin:5 internal lip of iliac crest, Upper 2/3 of iliac fossa of ilium, lower portion of iliolumbar ligament lateral aspect of sacrum, ventral sacroiliac ligament Insertion:1 Lesser trochanter Action: Flex the torso and thigh with respect to each other 3.Tensor Fascia Lata : 3.Tensor Fascia Lata Origin:2 Anterior superior iliac spine, outer lip of anterior iliac crest and fascia lata Insertion:1 Iliotibial band Action: Helps stabilize and steady the hip and+ knee joints by putting tension on the iliotibial band of fascia 4.Sartorius : 4.Sartorius Origin:1 Anterior superior iliac spine Insertion:1 Superior aspect of the medial surface of the tibial shaft+ near the tibial tuberosity Action: Flexes and laterally rotates the hip joint and flexes the knee 5.Pectineus : 5.Pectineus Origin:2 Pecten pubis and pectineal surface of the pubis Insertion:1 Pectineal line of femur Action: Adducts the thigh and flexes the hip joint 6.Gracilis : 6.Gracilis Origin:3 Inferior margin of pubic symphysis, inferior ramus of pubis, and adjacent ramus of ischium Insertion:1 Medial surface of tibial shaft+ just posterior to sartorius Action: Flexes the knee, adducts the thigh, and helps to medially rotate the tibia on the femur 7.Adductor Brevis : 7.Adductor Brevis Origin:1 Anterior surface of inferior pubic ramus+ inferior to origin of adductor longus Insertion:2 Pectineal line and superior part of medial lip of linea aspera Action: Adducts and flexes the thigh, and helps to laterally rotate the thigh 8.Adductor Longus : 8.Adductor Longus Origin:1 Anterior surface of body of pubis+ just lateral to pubic symphysis Insertion:3 Middle third of linea aspera, between the more medial adductor magnus and brevis insertions, and the more lateral origin of the vastus medialis Action: Adducts and flexes the thigh, and helps to laterally rotate the hip joint 9.Adductor Magnus : 9.Adductor Magnus Origin:3 Inferior pubic ramus, ischial ramus, and inferolateral area of ischial tuberosity Insertion:4 Gluteal tuberosity of femur, medial lip of linea aspera, medial supracondylar ridge, and adductor tubercle Action: Powerful thigh adductor; superior horizontal fibers also help flex the thigh, while vertical fibers help extend the thigh 10.Vastus Lateralis : 10.Vastus Lateralis Origin:4 Superior portion of intertrochanteric line, anterior and inferior borders of greater trochanter, superior portion of lateral lip of linea aspera, and lateral portion of gluteal tuberosity of femur Insertion:1 Lateral base and border of patella; also……. forms the lateral patellar retinaculum and lateral side of quadriceps femoris tendon Action: Extends the knee 11.Vastus Intermedius : 11.Vastus Intermedius Origin:2 Superior 2/3 of anterior and lateral surfaces of femur; also from lateral intermuscular septum of thigh Insertion:1 Lateral border of patella; also…... forms the deep portion of the quadriceps tendon Action: Extends the knee 12.Vastus Medialis : 12.Vastus Medialis Origin:5 Inferior portion of intertrochanteric line, spiral line, medial lip of linea aspera, superior part of medial supracondylar ridge of femur, and medial intermuscular septum Insertion:1 Medial base and border of patella; also……… forms the medial patellar retinaculum and medial side of quadriceps femoris tendon Action: Extends the knee 13.Gluteus Maximus : 13.Gluteus Maximus Origin:5 Posterior aspect of dorsal ilium posterior to posterior gluteal line, posterior superior iliac crest, posterior inferior aspect of sacrum and coccyx, sacrotuberous ligament Insertion:2 Primarily in fascia lata at the iliotibial band; also into the gluteal tuberosity on posterior femoral surface Action: Major extensor of hip joint, assists in laterally rotating the thigh; upper and middle third section of the muscle are abductors 14.Gluteus Medius : 14.Gluteus Medius Origin:1 Dorsal ilium+ inferior to iliac crest Insertion:1 Lateral and superior surfaces of greater trochanter Action: Major abductor of thigh; anterior fibers help to rotate hip medially; posterior fibers help to rotate hip laterally 15.Gluteus Minimus : 15.Gluteus Minimus Origin:2 Dorsal ilium between inferior and anterior gluteal lines; also from edge of greater sciatic notch Insertion:1 Anterior surface of greater trochanter Action: Abducts and medially rotates the hip joint 16.Biceps Femoris - Short Head : 16.Biceps Femoris - Short Head Origin:3 Lateral lip of linea aspera, lateral supracondylar ridge of femur, lateral intermuscular septum of thigh Insertion:3 Primarily on fibular head; also on lateral collateral ligament and lateral tibial condyle Action: Flexes the knee, and also rotates the tibia laterally; long head also extends the hip joint 17.Biceps Femoris - Long Head : 17.Biceps Femoris - Long Head Origin:1 From common tendon with semitendinosus from superior medial quadrant of the posterior portion of the ischial tuberosity Insertion:3 Primarily on fibular head; also on lateral collateral ligament and lateral tibial condyle Action: Flexes the knee, and also rotates the tibia laterally; long head also extends the hip joint 18.Semitendinosus : 18.Semitendinosus Origin:1 From common tendon with long head of biceps femoris from superior medial quadrant of the posterior portion of the ischial tuberosity Insertion:1 Superior aspect of medial portion of tibial shaft Action: Extends the thigh and flexes the knee, and also rotates the tibia medially+ especially when the knee is flexed 19.Semimembranosus : 19.Semimembranosus Origin:1 Superior lateral quadrant of the ischial tuberosity Insertion:1 Posterior surface of the medial tibial condyle Action: Extends the thigh, flexes the knee, also rotates the tibia medially, especially when the knee is flexed 20.Piriformis : 20.Piriformis Origin:2 Anterior surface of lateral process of sacrum; gluteal surface of ilium at the margin of the greater sciatic notch Insertion:1 Superior border of greater trochanter Action: Lateral rotator of the hip joint; also helps abduct the hip if it is flexed 21.Superior Gemellus : 21.Superior Gemellus Origin:1 Ischial spine Insertion:1 Medial surface of greater trochanter of femur, in common with obturator internus Action: Rotates the thigh laterally; also helps abduct the flexed thigh 22.Inferior Gemellus : 22.Inferior Gemellus Origin:2 Posterior portions of ischial tuberosity and lateral obturator ring Insertion:1 Medial surface of greater trochanter of femur, in common with obturator internus Action: Rotates the thigh laterally; also helps abduct the flexed thigh 23.Obturator Internus : 23.Obturator Internus Origin:2 Internal surface of obturator membrane; posterior bony margins of obturator foramen Insertion:1 Medial surface of greater trochanter of femur, in common with superior and inferior gemelli Action: Rotates the thigh laterally; also helps abduct the flexed thigh 24.Obturator Externus : 24.Obturator Externus Origin:2 External surface of obturator membrane anterior bony margins of obturator foramen Insertion:1 Posteromedial surface of greater trochanter of femur Action: Rotates the thigh laterally; also helps adduct thigh 25.Quadratus Femoris : 25.Quadratus Femoris Origin:1 Lateral margin of obturator ring above ischial tuberosity Insertion:2 Quadrate tubercle and adjacent bone of intertrochanteric crest of proximal posterior femur Action: Rotates the hip laterally; also helps adduct the hip 26.Rectus Femoris : 26.Rectus Femoris Origin:2 Straight head from anterior inferior iliac spine; reflected head from groove just above acetabulum Insertion:1 Base of patella to form the more central portion of the quadriceps femoris tendon Action: Extends the knee 27.Tibialis Anterior : 27.Tibialis Anterior Origin:4 Lateral condyle of tibia, proximal 1/2 - 2/3 or lateral surface of tibial shaft, interosseous membrane, and the deep surface of the fascia cruris Insertion:2 Medial and plantar surfaces of 1st cuneiform and on base of first metatarsal Action: Dorsiflexor of ankle and invertor of foot 28.Tibialis Posterior : 28.Tibialis Posterior Origin:4 Posterior aspect of interosseous membrane, superior 2/3 of medial posterior surface of fibula, superior aspect of posterior surface of tibia, and from intermuscular septum between muscles of posterior compartment and deep transverse septum Insertion:3 Splits into two slips after passing inferior to plantar calcaneonavicular ligament; superficial slip inserts on the tuberosity of the navicular bone and sometimes medial cuneiform; deeper slip divides again into slips inserting on plantar surfaces of metatarsals 2 - 4 and second cuneiform Action: Principal invertor of foot; also adducts foot, plantar flexes ankle, and helps to supinate the foot 29.Gastrocnemius : 29.Gastrocnemius Origin:2 Medial head from posterior nonarticular surface of medial femoral condyle; Lateral head from lateral surface of femoral lateral condyle Insertion:1 The two heads unite into a broad aponeurosis which eventually unites with the deep tendon of the soleus to form the Achilles tendon, inserting on the middle 1/3 of the posterior calcaneal surface Action: Powerful plantar flexor of ankle 30.Plantaris : 30.Plantaris Origin:1 Inferior aspect of lateral supracondylar line of distal femur Insertion:1 Middle 1/3 of the posterior calcaneal surface, just medial to Achilles tendon Action: Plantar flexor of ankle; also flexes knee 31.Popliteus : 31.Popliteus Origin:1 Anterior part of the popliteal groove on lateral surface of lateral femoral condyle Insertion:1 Posterior surface of tibia in a fan-like fashion, just superior to the popliteal line Action: Rotates knee medially and flexes the leg on the thigh 32.Soleus : 32.Soleus Origin:4 Posterior aspect of fibular head, upper 1/4 - 1/3 of posterior surface of fibula, middle 1/3 of medial border of tibial shaft, and from posterior surface of a tendinous arch spanning the two sites of bone origin Insertion:1 Eventually unites with the gastrocnemius aponeurosis to form the Achilles tendon, inserting on the middle 1/3 of the posterior calcaneal surface Action: Powerful plantar flexor of ankle 33.Extensor Digitorum Longus : 33.Extensor Digitorum Longus Origin:5 Lateral condyle of fibula, upper 2/3 - 3/4 of medial fibular shaft surface, upper part of interosseous membrane, fascia cruris, and anterior intermuscular septum Insertion:1 Splits into 4 tendon slips after inferior extensor retinaculum, each of which insert on dorsum of middle and distal phalanges as part of extensor expansion complex Action: Extend toes 2 – 5; also helps in dorsiflexes of ankle 34.Flexor Digitorum Longus : 34.Flexor Digitorum Longus Origin:1 Posterior surface of tibia distal to popliteal line Insertion:1 Splits into four slips after passing through medial intermuscular septum of plantar surface of foot; these slips then insert on plantar surface of bases of 2nd - 5th distal phalanges Action: Flexes toes 2 - 5; also helps in plantar flexion of ankle 35.Extensor Hallucis Longus : 35.Extensor Hallucis Longus Origin:2 Anterior surface of the fibula and the adjacent interosseous membrane Insertion:1 Base and dorsal center of distal phalanx of great toe Action: Extends great toe and dorsiflexes ankle 36.Flexor Hallucis Longus : 36.Flexor Hallucis Longus Origin:2 Inferior 2/3 of posterior surface of fibula, lower part of interosseous membrane Insertion:1 Plantar surface of base of distal phalanx of great toe Action: Flexes great toe, helps to supinate ankle, and is a very weak plantar flexor of ankle 37.Peroneus Longus : 37.Peroneus Longus Origin:3 Head of fibula, upper 1/2 - 2/3 of lateral fibular shaft surface; also anterior and posterior intermuscular septa of leg Insertion:2 Plantar posterolateral aspect of medial cuneiform and lateral side of 1st metatarsal base Action: Everts foot and plantar flexes ankle; also helps to support the transverse arch of the foot 38.Peroneus Brevis : 38.Peroneus Brevis Origin:2 Inferior 2/3 of lateral fibular surface; also anterior and posterior intermuscular septa of leg Insertion:1 Lateral surface of styloid process of 5th metatarsal base Action: Everts foot and plantar flexes ankle 39.Peroneus Tertius : 39.Peroneus Tertius Origin:2 Arises with the extensor digitorum longus from the medial fibular shaft surface and the anterior intermuscular septum (between the extensor digitorum longus and the tibialis anterior) Insertion:1 Dorsal surface of the base of the 5th metatarsal Action: Works with the extensor digitorum longus to dorsiflex, evert and abduct the foot

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