Longitudinal And Transverse Waves

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Information about Longitudinal And Transverse Waves

Published on March 24, 2009

Author: christaines

Source: slideshare.net

Longitudinal and transverse waves

Longitudinal Sound Seismic P-waves Compression waves on string Compressions Rarefactions

Sound

Seismic P-waves

Compression waves on string

Compressions

Rarefactions

Transverse Water waves Waves on string Seismic S-waves EM waves No vibrations of particles in a transmitting medium Oscillating electric and magnetic fields c = 3 x 10 8 ms -1

Water waves

Waves on string

Seismic S-waves

EM waves

No vibrations of particles in a transmitting medium

Oscillating electric and magnetic fields

c = 3 x 10 8 ms -1

 

Polarisation Evidence for transverse nature of waves Using a Polaroid to view light Using 2 Polaroids

Evidence for transverse nature of waves

Using a Polaroid to view light

Using 2 Polaroids

Polaroid 1: only transmits waves in vertical plane Polaroid 2: only transmits waves in horizontal plane  absorbs all waves in other planes i.e. a polarised light detector Longitudinal waves – cannot be polarised

Polaroid 1: only transmits waves in vertical plane

Polaroid 2: only transmits waves in horizontal plane  absorbs all waves in other planes

i.e. a polarised light detector

Longitudinal waves – cannot be polarised

Light Unpolarised Plane polarised – oscillations restricted EM radiation = varying E and B field  polarisation of plane containing E field e.g. if light is vertically plane polarised, plane containing E field and direction of travel (plane of vibration) is vertical

Unpolarised

Plane polarised – oscillations restricted

EM radiation = varying E and B field

 polarisation of plane containing E field

e.g. if light is vertically plane polarised, plane containing E field and direction of travel (plane of vibration) is vertical

Applications Sunglasses – reflected light partially plane polarised (sea/pond = horizontally plane polarised). Sunglasses only transmit vertically plane polarised light

Sunglasses – reflected light partially plane polarised (sea/pond = horizontally plane polarised). Sunglasses only transmit vertically plane polarised light

Stress patterns – transparent polymers placed between crossed polarising filters Camera lenses – polarising film can reduce light intensity (and increase contrast) since light from sky is partially plane polarised (light from cloud is not)

Stress patterns – transparent polymers placed between crossed polarising filters

Camera lenses – polarising film can reduce light intensity (and increase contrast) since light from sky is partially plane polarised (light from cloud is not)

Polarising light Polarising filters transmitted light plane polarised parallel to filter Polaroid sheet Light absorbed if polarised parallel to molecular alignment

Polarising filters

transmitted light plane polarised parallel to filter

Polaroid sheet

Light absorbed if polarised parallel to molecular alignment

Reflect it from transparent material Reflected ray – partially plane polarised parallel to surface (horizontal) Refracted ray partially plane polarised perpendicular to surface (vertical) If reflected ray perpendicular to refracted ray, both completely plane polarised (when angle incidence =  b Brewster’s angle) Sunglasses – can check if polarising by looking at reflected light

Reflect it from transparent material

Reflected ray – partially plane polarised parallel to surface (horizontal)

Refracted ray partially plane polarised perpendicular to surface (vertical)

If reflected ray perpendicular to refracted ray, both completely plane polarised (when angle incidence =  b Brewster’s angle)

Sunglasses – can check if polarising by looking at reflected light

Scattering By suspension of small particles Scattered light partially plane polarised If scattered light at 90 ° to incident direction = completely plane polarised

Scattering

By suspension of small particles

Scattered light partially plane polarised

If scattered light at 90 ° to incident direction = completely plane polarised

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