Logical Framework And Project Proposal

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Information about Logical Framework And Project Proposal

Published on December 4, 2007

Author: rexcris

Source: slideshare.net

The logical framework approach and the writing of proposals March 25, 2003

GENERAL REMARKS

A proposal is a crucial document: donors will decide whether or not to finance your project based on what you have written. Any proposal should reflect thoughtful planning What is a proposal?

A proposal is a crucial document: donors will decide whether or not to finance your project based on what you have written.

Any proposal should reflect thoughtful planning

Identify the project idea Project Demand from the community Available resources Needs as defined by experts

Make sure that you are addressing a genuine problem and that you are equipped for it. Two-step approach: First define your project thoroughly and in a participatory approach, Then adapt your project proposal according to the targeted donor. Use the logical framework which is a method to design a project in a systematic and logical way . Some recommendations…

Make sure that you are addressing a genuine problem and that you are equipped for it.

Two-step approach:

First define your project thoroughly and in a participatory approach,

Then adapt your project proposal according to the targeted donor.

Use the logical framework which is a method to design a project in a systematic and logical way .

LOGICAL FRAMEWORK APPROACH

What is a logical framework ? The Logical Framework Matrix provides a summary of : Why a project is carried out What the project is expected to achieve How the project is going to achieve it Which external factors are crucial for its success Where to find the information required to assess the success of the project Which means are required How much the project will cost

The Logical Framework Matrix provides a summary of :

Why a project is carried out

What the project is expected to achieve

How the project is going to achieve it

Which external factors are crucial for its success

Where to find the information required to assess the success of the project

Which means are required

How much the project will cost

The Logical Framework Matrix

The logframe and the project cycle * NGO’s mandate * NGO thematic/geo. orientations * outcome : Programme strategy * pre-feasibility project studies * outcome : decision YES/NO * all significant aspects of the idea are studied * outcome : logical framework * fundraising strategy * proposal writing for donors * outcome : financing contract(s) * the agreed resources are used to achieve the project purpose * reports / contract amendments * outcome : decision to continue as planned or re-orient the project * relevance and and fulfilment of objectives * outcome : how to use results in future programming

Organisations using the logframe USAID, USA GTZ, Germany DfID, Great-Britain NORAD, Norway DANIDA, Denmark AUSAID, Australia Intercooperation, Switzerland Ministry of Foreign Affairs, France DGCD, Belgium European Commission DGCS - Min. of For. Aff., Italy ICAX - Min. of Industry, Spain SIDA, Sweden UNIDO, Vienna FINNIDA - Min. of For. Aff., Finland HELLASCO, Greece WWF Int. Federation of Red Cross UNDP FAO

USAID, USA

GTZ, Germany

DfID, Great-Britain

NORAD, Norway

DANIDA, Denmark

AUSAID, Australia

Intercooperation, Switzerland

Ministry of Foreign Affairs, France

DGCD, Belgium

European Commission

DGCS - Min. of For. Aff., Italy

ICAX - Min. of Industry, Spain

SIDA, Sweden

UNIDO, Vienna

FINNIDA - Min. of For. Aff., Finland

HELLASCO, Greece

WWF

Int. Federation of Red Cross

UNDP

FAO

Advantages of the logical framework Problems are analysed systematically The objectives are clearly formulated, logical and measurable The risks and conditions for success of a project are taken into account There is an objective basis for monitoring and evaluation Your project proposal will be coherent

Problems are analysed systematically

The objectives are clearly formulated, logical and measurable

The risks and conditions for success of a project are taken into account

There is an objective basis for monitoring and evaluation

The logical framework approach Problem analysis : identifying stakeholders, their key problems, constraints and opportunities, determining cause and effect relationships. Analysis of objectives : developing objectives from the identified problems, identifying the relationships between the means and the ends. Analysis of the strategy : identifying the different strategies to achieve objectives, determining the major objectives (overall objectives and project purpose or specific objective). Logframe : defining the project structure, testing its internal logic and formulating objectives in measurable terms, determining means and cost. Activity planning : determining the sequence and the relation between the activities, estimating their duration , setting the main stages in the process, assigning responsibility. Resources planning : from the activity schedule, developing the input schedule and the budget. Analysis phase Planning phase

Problem analysis : identifying stakeholders, their key problems, constraints and opportunities, determining cause and effect relationships.

Analysis of objectives : developing objectives from the identified problems, identifying the relationships between the means and the ends.

Analysis of the strategy : identifying the different strategies to achieve objectives, determining the major objectives (overall objectives and project purpose or specific objective).

Logframe : defining the project structure, testing its internal logic and formulating objectives in measurable terms, determining means and cost.

Activity planning : determining the sequence and the relation between the activities, estimating their duration , setting the main stages in the process, assigning responsibility.

Resources planning : from the activity schedule, developing the input schedule and the budget.

1. Problem analysis Identify the major problem faced by the beneficiaries Develop a problem tree Identify the stakeholders affected in the proposed project

Identify the major problem faced by the beneficiaries

Develop a problem tree

Identify the stakeholders affected in the proposed project

How to proceed with problem analysis ? Identify key problems existing within a given situation (brainstorming) Select a starter problem Look for related problems to the starter problem Establish hierarchy of causes and effects - problems which are directly causing the starter problem are placed below - problems which are direct effects of the starter problem are placed above Complete with all other problems accordingly Review the diagram and verify its validity and completeness

Identify key problems existing within a given situation (brainstorming)

Select a starter problem

Look for related problems to the starter problem

Establish hierarchy of causes and effects

- problems which are directly causing the starter problem are placed below

- problems which are direct effects of the starter problem are placed above

Complete with all other problems accordingly

Review the diagram and verify its validity and completeness

1. Problem analysis EFFECTS CAUSES The system receives no maintenance The irrigation system is faulty Some irrigation structures have been destroyed Support services for farmers are not available in the area The farmers have no investment capacity Rice production is insufficient for the population of village x Agricultural practices are unsuitable Problem tree

1. Problem analysis Identifying stakeholders PUBLIC PRIVATE MICRO MACRO Farmers Agric. Ext. services MoA FAO Farmers’groups NGO Irrigation Dept . Fertiliser suppliers

2. Analysis of objectives Problems Objectives Transforming Problems into Objectives Rice production is insufficient for the population of village x The irrigation system is faulty Agricultural practices are unsuitable The system receives no maintenance Some irrigation structures have been destroyed Support services for farmers are not available Farmers do not have investment capacity Rice production is sufficient for the population of village x The irrigation system is working Agricultural practices are appropriate The system receives proper maintenance Support services for farmers are available Damaged irrigation structures are repaired Farmers have the resources to invest

2. Analysis of objectives Objectives’ tree MEANS ENDS Rice production is sufficient for the population of village x The irrigation system is working Agricultural practices are appropriate The system receives proper maintenance Damaged irrigation structures are repaired Support services for farmers are available Farmers have the resources to invest

3. Analysis of alternatives Possible criteria to choose the intervention logic of your project among different project alternatives: Available resources (especially HR) Probability of achieving the project purpose and its results Cost Timeframe Risks

Possible criteria to choose the intervention logic of your project among different project alternatives:

Available resources (especially HR)

Probability of achieving the project purpose and its results

Cost

Timeframe

Risks

3. Analysis of strategy SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE (or project purpose) EXPECTED RESULTS OVERALL OBJECTIVE CHOSEN STRATEGY Rice production is sufficient for the population of village x The irrigation system is working Agricultural practices are appropriate The system receives proper maintenance Damaged irrigation structures are repaired Support services for farmers are available Farmers have the resources to invest

4. The log-frame

Levels of objectives The broader impact(s) to which your project will contribute to, but will not enable to reach entirely The outcome of your project, what should be achieved at the enf of the project. Specific outputs which will contribute to the realisation of your project purpose Concrete activities that will be undertaken during the project Project Purpose Expected Results Activities Overall Objective(s) 4. The log-frame

4. The log-frame Define objectively verifiable indicators (OVI): !!! Do not make the confusion between «  criteria  » and «  indicators  » !!! A criteria is for instance: « number of… », « increase in…  » Whereas an indicator is « 150 persons per month », « 34% of increase in … »

Define objectively verifiable indicators (OVI):

!!! Do not make the confusion between «  criteria  » and «  indicators  » !!!

A criteria is for instance: « number of… », « increase in…  »

Whereas an indicator is « 150 persons per month », « 34% of increase in … »

Example of a good indicator Objective : The irrigation system is working The indicator should be «  SMART   »: S pecific = The irrigation pumps are functioning properly in the project area M easurable = 50 of the irrigation pumps are functioning properly in the project area Acceptable = Is the indicator accepted by all the partners involved in the implementation of the project ? R elevant = Are the irrigation pumps the main problem? T ime-bound = 100% of the irrigation pumps are functioning properly in the project area at the end of the project 4. The log-frame

Objective : The irrigation system is working

The indicator should be «  SMART   »:

S pecific = The irrigation pumps are functioning properly in the project area

M easurable = 50 of the irrigation pumps are functioning properly in the project area

Acceptable = Is the indicator accepted by all the partners involved in the implementation of the project ?

R elevant = Are the irrigation pumps the main problem?

T ime-bound = 100% of the irrigation pumps are functioning properly in the project area at the end of the project

Selection of sources of verification Administrative/ financial report Management report Monitoring data Adapted monitoring statistics Interviews of beneficiaries Specialised surveys Complexity Cost 4. The log-frame

4. The log-frame Consider the various risks and assumptions on your project: = external factors that may affect the projects’ implementation and long-term sustainability = synergetic activities made by other actors Do not define assumptions that are endogenous to the project and the scheduled activities !! Only mention relevant hypothesis…

Consider the various risks and assumptions on your project:

= external factors that may affect the projects’ implementation and long-term sustainability

= synergetic activities made by other actors

Do not define assumptions that are endogenous to the project and the scheduled activities !!

Only mention relevant hypothesis…

Is the RISK important to your project? Yes No What is its probability? Ignore Almost certain Unlikely Fairly Unlikely Can the project strategy be modified to eliminate the risk? Yes No Modify strategy, add activities STOP the project Formulate an assumption Risks/Assumptions 4. The log-frame

Intervention logic of project + Assumptions IN OUT Overall objective Project Purpose Results Activities + + + Assumptions Assumptions Assumptions Pre-conditions If the activities are carried out, and if assumptions are valid, then ... 4. The log-frame

Logical framework 5. Activity-planning Plan of action Activities

5. Resource-planning Plan of action Means/Budget Travel etc. Material/ Equipment Human resources Budget Means:

TIME FOR A SMALL GROUP EXERCISE!! GROUP WORK

TIME FOR A SMALL GROUP EXERCISE!!

The logical framework : Two case studies Case study Bangladesh : Advocacy project in Bangladesh to promote the rights of persons with disabilities Case Study Nepal Project in Nepal to provide orthopaedic appliances and services to disabled persons Identify among the cards given : ·     Goal (1) ·     Project purpose (1) ·     Expected results (4) ·     Corresponding indicators for each (6) ·     Assumptions (5) Group work: 15 minutes – Presentation: 5 minutes

Case study Bangladesh :

Advocacy project in Bangladesh to promote the rights of persons with disabilities

Case Study Nepal

Project in Nepal to provide orthopaedic appliances and services to disabled persons

Identify among the cards given :

·     Goal (1)

·     Project purpose (1)

·     Expected results (4)

·     Corresponding indicators for each (6)

·     Assumptions (5)

Group work: 15 minutes – Presentation: 5 minutes

10 frequently made errors in log-frame: Make sure to… 1. Have only one specific objective. 2. Have a coherence in the hierarchy between objectives and results. 3. Formulate objectives and results as they were already achieved. 4. Define “SMART indicators” (no activity, no vague indicator like criteria). 5. Do not transpose the activities as indicators of the results. 6. Do not define indicators next to the general objectives (they are irrelevant in most cases). 7. Do not define sources of verification that are too expensive or impossible to get. In any case, if an expensive source of verification is mentioned, be sure to integrate it in the activities and within the budget. 8. Do not define hypothesis endogenous to the activities you should implement. 9. Next to activities, mention the means (HR and material) and the costs. 10. Do not forget pre-conditions

1. Have only one specific objective.

2. Have a coherence in the hierarchy between objectives and results.

3. Formulate objectives and results as they were already achieved.

4. Define “SMART indicators” (no activity, no vague indicator like criteria).

5. Do not transpose the activities as indicators of the results.

6. Do not define indicators next to the general objectives (they are irrelevant in most cases).

7. Do not define sources of verification that are too expensive or impossible to get.

In any case, if an expensive source of verification is mentioned, be sure to integrate it in the activities and within the budget.

8. Do not define hypothesis endogenous to the activities you should implement.

9. Next to activities, mention the means (HR and material) and the costs.

10. Do not forget pre-conditions

WRITING PROJECT PROPOSAL

Preliminary remarks Proposal = is often the only tool for the donor to assess your project (e.g. reject it or not) Write a proposal only when your project idea is already well defined! Be sure to stick to the donor’s criteria and values.

Proposal = is often the only tool for the donor to assess your project (e.g. reject it or not)

Write a proposal only when your project idea is already well defined!

Be sure to stick to the donor’s criteria and values.

Select the right funding source DONOR’ S MANDATE : Which donor has a mandate compatible with your project ? ex. Humanitarian aid versus development (ECHO versus EuropeAid) ex. Refugees (ex. Austcare) DONOR’S PREFERENCES : What are your potential donors preferences? Ex: Mines victims (Irish Aid) SELECTION CRITERIA : How do donors evaluate project proposals and are you likely to be selected? Existence of an evaluation grid ? Consortium required?, etc…

DONOR’ S MANDATE : Which donor has a mandate compatible with your project ?

ex. Humanitarian aid versus development (ECHO versus EuropeAid)

ex. Refugees (ex. Austcare)

DONOR’S PREFERENCES : What are your potential donors preferences?

Ex: Mines victims (Irish Aid)

SELECTION CRITERIA : How do donors evaluate project proposals and are you likely to be selected?

Existence of an evaluation grid ?

Consortium required?, etc…

Follow a logical thread: Background -> Problem -> Solution -> Sustainability Ensure internal coherence between: Problem - Objectives - Means Many donors follow the LFA Package your project into an attractive proposal (1)

Follow a logical thread:

Background -> Problem -> Solution

-> Sustainability

Ensure internal coherence between:

Problem - Objectives - Means

Many donors follow the LFA

Coherence checklist Don’t leave a problem unsolved Don’t identify objectives that do not correspond to a problem Don’t identify objectives for which you don’t have appropriate means Don’t propose activities that are not related to problems and objectives Don’t list human resources that are disproportionate to the objectives you aim to achieve Package your project into an attractive proposal (2)

Coherence checklist

Don’t leave a problem unsolved

Don’t identify objectives that do not correspond to a problem

Don’t identify objectives for which you don’t have appropriate means

Don’t propose activities that are not related to problems and objectives

Don’t list human resources that are disproportionate to the objectives you aim to achieve

Editing and layout Pay attention to the language : Use simple language Use future tenses Be concise and logical Avoid spelling mistakes Find a catchy title Pay attention to the layout/ presentation : Use your organization’s logo on the first page Use headers and footers Clear titles and paragraphs Break the monotony Add table of contents Print on standard format paper Package your project into an attractive proposal (3)

Editing and layout

Pay attention to the language :

Use simple language

Use future tenses

Be concise and logical

Avoid spelling mistakes

Find a catchy title

Pay attention to the layout/ presentation :

Use your organization’s logo on the first page

Use headers and footers

Clear titles and paragraphs

Break the monotony

Add table of contents

Print on standard format paper

Executive summary Presentation of the organisation Project background Problem statement Goal and objectives Beneficiaries Proposed methodology: Partners Project implementation Activities Risks and assumptions Means Budget Monitoring and evaluation Sustainability Annexes General structure

Executive summary

Presentation of the organisation

Project background

Problem statement

Goal and objectives

Beneficiaries

Proposed methodology:

Partners

Project implementation

Activities

Risks and assumptions

Means

Budget

Monitoring and evaluation

Sustainability

Annexes

1. Executive Summary Why is it important: It is the first thing that is read Sometimes, it is the only thing that is read… It can be used by the donor to communicate about your project Executive summary Presentation of the organisation Project background Problem statement Goal and objectives Beneficiaries Proposed methodology Budget Monitoring and evaluation Sustainability Annexes

Why is it important:

It is the first thing that is read

Sometimes, it is the only thing that is read…

It can be used by the donor to communicate about your project

Executive summary

Presentation of the organisation

Project background

Problem statement

Goal and objectives

Beneficiaries

Proposed methodology

Budget

Monitoring and evaluation

Sustainability

Annexes

Executive summary Presentation of the organisation Project background Problem statement Goal and objectives Beneficiaries Proposed methodology Budget Monitoring and evaluation Sustainability Annexes 1. Executive Summary Contents What do you propose to do? Where? Why? For whom? With whom? For how long?

Executive summary

Presentation of the organisation

Project background

Problem statement

Goal and objectives

Beneficiaries

Proposed methodology

Budget

Monitoring and evaluation

Sustainability

Annexes

Contents

What do you propose to do?

Where?

Why?

For whom?

With whom?

For how long?

1. Executive Summary DO : Write it only at the end Do it carefully Be concise DON’T : Cut and paste Executive summary Presentation of the organisation Project background Problem statement Goal and objectives Beneficiaries Proposed methodology Budget Monitoring and evaluation Sustainability Annexes

DO :

Write it only at the end

Do it carefully

Be concise

DON’T :

Cut and paste

Executive summary

Presentation of the organisation

Project background

Problem statement

Goal and objectives

Beneficiaries

Proposed methodology

Budget

Monitoring and evaluation

Sustainability

Annexes

2. Presentation of the organisation Why is it important? Purpose : to establish credibility and image of a well-managed organization that meets critical needs in its area of work Tips Should not be too long If you are approaching a new donor, attach in appendix a presentation brochure and/or the last activity report Executive summary Presentation of the organisation Project background Problem statement Goal and objectives Beneficiaries Proposed methodology Budget Monitoring and evaluation Sustainability Annexes

Why is it important?

Purpose : to establish credibility and image of a well-managed organization that meets critical needs in its area of work

Tips

Should not be too long

If you are approaching a new donor, attach in appendix a presentation brochure and/or the last activity report

Executive summary

Presentation of the organisation

Project background

Problem statement

Goal and objectives

Beneficiaries

Proposed methodology

Budget

Monitoring and evaluation

Sustainability

Annexes

2. Presentation of the organisation Contents Who are you? Philosophy/ mandate? History and significant interventions/track record Expertise in addressing the problem/need Organizational structure Major sources of support Affiliations/accreditations/ linkages Executive summary Presentation of the organisation Project background Problem statement Goal and objectives Beneficiaries Proposed methodology Budget Monitoring and evaluation Sustainability Annexes

Contents

Who are you?

Philosophy/ mandate?

History and significant interventions/track record

Expertise in addressing the problem/need

Organizational structure

Major sources of support

Affiliations/accreditations/ linkages

Executive summary

Presentation of the organisation

Project background

Problem statement

Goal and objectives

Beneficiaries

Proposed methodology

Budget

Monitoring and evaluation

Sustainability

Annexes

3. Project Background Contents Who took the initiative? Does the project fit into an existing development plan or programme? Is this the first phase of the project, or the continuation of an activity already undergoing? If this is the case, which have been the main result of the previous phase? What studies have been done to prepare the project? Who else operates in this field? Executive summary Presentation of the organisation Project background Problem statement Goal and objectives Beneficiaries Proposed methodology Budget Monitoring and evaluation Sustainability Annexes

Contents

Who took the initiative?

Does the project fit into an existing development plan or programme?

Is this the first phase of the project, or the continuation of an activity already undergoing?

If this is the case, which have been the main result of the previous phase?

What studies have been done to prepare the project?

Who else operates in this field?

Executive summary

Presentation of the organisation

Project background

Problem statement

Goal and objectives

Beneficiaries

Proposed methodology

Budget

Monitoring and evaluation

Sustainability

Annexes

3. Project Background Tips You need to demonstrate that : The project arises from the beneficiaries and/or the local partners You know very well the local context You have the experience needed to run the project successfully You have been successful before Executive summary Presentation of the organisation Project background Problem statement Goal and objectives Beneficiaries Proposed methodology Budget Monitoring and evaluation Sustainability Annexes

Tips

You need to demonstrate that :

The project arises from the beneficiaries and/or the local partners

You know very well the local context

You have the experience needed to run the project successfully

You have been successful before

Executive summary

Presentation of the organisation

Project background

Problem statement

Goal and objectives

Beneficiaries

Proposed methodology

Budget

Monitoring and evaluation

Sustainability

Annexes

4. Problem Statement Why is it important? Unless donors are convinced that there is a real problem , they will not agree to disburse money for our project ! Tips A “good” problem should: concern people be concrete and demonstrated be solvable arise from a demand be an emergency or priority Executive summary Presentation of the organisation Project background Problem statement Goal and objectives Beneficiaries Proposed methodology Budget Monitoring and evaluation Sustainability Annexes

Why is it important?

Unless donors are convinced that there is a real problem , they will not agree to disburse money for our project !

Tips

A “good” problem should:

concern people

be concrete and demonstrated

be solvable

arise from a demand

be an emergency or priority

Executive summary

Presentation of the organisation

Project background

Problem statement

Goal and objectives

Beneficiaries

Proposed methodology

Budget

Monitoring and evaluation

Sustainability

Annexes

4. Problem Statement Contents Description of the scope and magnitude of the problem What are the immediate causes of the problem? What are the underlying causes of the problem? What are the effects of the problem? How does it affect people? Why does it have to be addressed? Why now and not later? Executive summary Presentation of the organisation Project background Problem statement Goal and objectives Beneficiaries Proposed methodology Budget Monitoring and evaluation Sustainability Annexes

Contents

Description of the scope and magnitude of the problem

What are the immediate causes of the problem?

What are the underlying causes of the problem?

What are the effects of the problem?

How does it affect people?

Why does it have to be addressed?

Why now and not later?

Executive summary

Presentation of the organisation

Project background

Problem statement

Goal and objectives

Beneficiaries

Proposed methodology

Budget

Monitoring and evaluation

Sustainability

Annexes

5. Goal and Objectives Goals (or overall objectives) : Describes the long-term goals, your project will contribute to. Project Purpose or Specific Objective: Describes the objective of your project in response to the core problem. Expected Results: Describes the outputs or concrete results of your project. Executive summary Presentation of the organisation Project background Problem statement Goal and objectives Beneficiaries Proposed methodology Budget Monitoring and evaluation Sustainability Annexes

Executive summary

Presentation of the organisation

Project background

Problem statement

Goal and objectives

Beneficiaries

Proposed methodology

Budget

Monitoring and evaluation

Sustainability

Annexes

5. Goal and Objectives Objectives should be SMART : S pecific = they must meet the needs (problems) identified M easurable = they should be measured by concrete indicators which should reflect the extent to which they have been attained A cceptable = by all involved partners R elevant = they must be adequate to the project socio-cultural environment T ime-bound = must be reached by the end of the project Executive summary Presentation of the organisation Project background Problem statement Goal and objectives Beneficiaries Proposed methodology Budget Monitoring and evaluation Sustainability Annexes

Objectives should be SMART :

S pecific = they must meet the needs (problems) identified

M easurable = they should be measured by concrete indicators which should reflect the extent to which they have been attained

A cceptable = by all involved partners

R elevant = they must be adequate to the project socio-cultural environment

T ime-bound = must be reached by the end of the project

Executive summary

Presentation of the organisation

Project background

Problem statement

Goal and objectives

Beneficiaries

Proposed methodology

Budget

Monitoring and evaluation

Sustainability

Annexes

6. Beneficiaries Contents Clearly identify direct and indirect beneficiaries : Directly receiving support Indirectly benefiting How many? Where? Characteristics? Specify how and at what stage they will be involved in the project Executive summary Presentation of the organisation Project background Problem statement Goal and objectives Beneficiaries Proposed methodology Budget Monitoring and evaluation Sustainability Annexes

Contents

Clearly identify direct and indirect beneficiaries :

Directly receiving support

Indirectly benefiting

How many?

Where?

Characteristics?

Specify how and at what stage they will be involved in the project

Executive summary

Presentation of the organisation

Project background

Problem statement

Goal and objectives

Beneficiaries

Proposed methodology

Budget

Monitoring and evaluation

Sustainability

Annexes

7. Proposed Methodology Executive summary Presentation of the organisation Project background Problem statement Goal and objectives Beneficiaries Proposed methodology Budget Monitoring and evaluation Sustainability Annexes Contents Partners Project implementation Activities Risks and assumptions Means Why is it important? Indicates how objectives will be achieved

Executive summary

Presentation of the organisation

Project background

Problem statement

Goal and objectives

Beneficiaries

Proposed methodology

Budget

Monitoring and evaluation

Sustainability

Annexes

Contents

Partners

Project implementation

Activities

Risks and assumptions

Means

Why is it important?

Indicates how objectives will be achieved

Partners : Clearly distinguish between main partners and other partners Provide background information: Goals/philosophy? Area of intervention? Relationship with beneficiaries? Cooperation track-record? Role in the project Type of partnership you set up Specify each partner’s role Executive summary Presentation of the organisation Project background Problem statement Goal and objectives Beneficiaries Proposed methodology Budget Monitoring and evaluation Sustainability Annexes 7. Proposed Methodology

Partners :

Clearly distinguish between main partners and other partners

Provide background information:

Goals/philosophy?

Area of intervention?

Relationship with beneficiaries?

Cooperation track-record?

Role in the project

Type of partnership you set up

Specify each partner’s role

Executive summary

Presentation of the organisation

Project background

Problem statement

Goal and objectives

Beneficiaries

Proposed methodology

Budget

Monitoring and evaluation

Sustainability

Annexes

Project implementation : Rationale for selecting a particular or unique methodology Project implementation structure: roles and responsibilities of all the project stakeholders Tip Use a chart to describe the project implementation structure Executive summary Presentation of the organisation Project background Problem statement Goal and objectives Beneficiaries Proposed methodology Budget Monitoring and evaluation Sustainability Annexes 7. Proposed Methodology

Project implementation :

Rationale for selecting a particular or unique methodology

Project implementation structure: roles and responsibilities of all the project stakeholders

Tip

Use a chart to describe the project implementation structure

Executive summary

Presentation of the organisation

Project background

Problem statement

Goal and objectives

Beneficiaries

Proposed methodology

Budget

Monitoring and evaluation

Sustainability

Annexes

7. Proposed Methodology Executive summary Presentation of the organisation Project background Problem statement Goal and objectives Beneficiaries Proposed methodology Budget Monitoring and evaluation Sustainability Annexes Activities : What will be done? How? By whom? Where? By when? Tips Be as precise as possible Cluster activities by expected result Use a work plan to summarise

Executive summary

Presentation of the organisation

Project background

Problem statement

Goal and objectives

Beneficiaries

Proposed methodology

Budget

Monitoring and evaluation

Sustainability

Annexes

Activities :

What will be done?

How?

By whom?

Where?

By when?

Tips

Be as precise as possible

Cluster activities by expected result

Use a work plan to summarise

7. Proposed Methodology Executive summary Presentation of the organisation Project background Problem statement Goal and objectives Beneficiaries Proposed methodology Budget Monitoring and evaluation Sustainability Annexes Example: Training: How many persons? For how long? Starting when? Which methodology will be used (seminars, in-house training, ad hoc courses, etc.) Why is the training necessary? Which new skills will the trainees acquire?

Executive summary

Presentation of the organisation

Project background

Problem statement

Goal and objectives

Beneficiaries

Proposed methodology

Budget

Monitoring and evaluation

Sustainability

Annexes

Example:

Training:

How many persons?

For how long? Starting when?

Which methodology will be used (seminars, in-house training, ad hoc courses, etc.)

Why is the training necessary?

Which new skills will the trainees acquire?

7. Proposed Methodology Executive summary Presentation of the organisation Project background Problem statement Goal and objectives Beneficiaries Proposed methodology Budget Monitoring and evaluation Sustainability Annexes Risks/Assumptions : Risks are external factors that could potentially jeopardise your project and are beyond the control of the project management Assumptions are what you are supposing regarding those risks Why is it important? It helps assess the factors which could jeopardise your project It helps examining the project for completeness and consistency

Executive summary

Presentation of the organisation

Project background

Problem statement

Goal and objectives

Beneficiaries

Proposed methodology

Budget

Monitoring and evaluation

Sustainability

Annexes

Risks/Assumptions :

Risks are external factors that could potentially jeopardise your project and are beyond the control of the project management

Assumptions are what you are supposing regarding those risks

Why is it important?

It helps assess the factors which could jeopardise your project

It helps examining the project for completeness and consistency

7. Proposed methodology Executive summary Presentation of the organisation Project background Problem statement Goal and objectives Beneficiaries Proposed methodology Budget Monitoring and evaluation Sustainability Annexes Means : Human resources : Explain the responsibilities and tasks of each key person in the project. Justify the need for expatriate personnel Material resources : Give an explanation of the most important budget lines Justify vehicles

Executive summary

Presentation of the organisation

Project background

Problem statement

Goal and objectives

Beneficiaries

Proposed methodology

Budget

Monitoring and evaluation

Sustainability

Annexes

Means :

Human resources :

Explain the responsibilities and tasks of each key person in the project.

Justify the need for expatriate personnel

Material resources :

Give an explanation of the most important budget lines

Justify vehicles

8. Budget Executive summary Presentation of the organisation Project background Problem statement Goal and objectives Beneficiaries Proposed methodology Budget Monitoring and evaluation Sustainability Annexes Contents Budget itself Budget explanations and justifications Tips Prepare it using your plan of action Don’t inflate the budget Follow carefully donor’s requirements Disaggregate your budget for each year

Executive summary

Presentation of the organisation

Project background

Problem statement

Goal and objectives

Beneficiaries

Proposed methodology

Budget

Monitoring and evaluation

Sustainability

Annexes

Contents

Budget itself

Budget explanations and justifications

Tips

Prepare it using your plan of action

Don’t inflate the budget

Follow carefully donor’s requirements

Disaggregate your budget for each year

9. Monitoring& Evaluation Executive summary Presentation of the organisation Project background Problem statement Goal and objectives Beneficiaries Proposed methodology Budget Monitoring and evaluation Sustainability Annexes Why is it important? Monitoring : to assess whether your project activities are on track Evaluation : to assess whether your project is effective, efficient, has an impact, is relevant, sustainable… Contents What will be monitored and why? By whom? How often? Using which tools and methods?

Executive summary

Presentation of the organisation

Project background

Problem statement

Goal and objectives

Beneficiaries

Proposed methodology

Budget

Monitoring and evaluation

Sustainability

Annexes

Why is it important?

Monitoring : to assess whether your project activities are on track

Evaluation : to assess whether your project is effective, efficient, has an impact, is relevant, sustainable…

Contents

What will be monitored and why?

By whom?

How often?

Using which tools and methods?

10. Sustainability Executive summary Presentation of the organisation Project background Problem statement Goal and objectives Beneficiaries Proposed methodology Budget Monitoring and evaluation Sustainability Annexes Contents Institutional sustainability Technical sustainability Socio-cultural sustainability Financial sustainability Why is it important? Because donors want to be sure that their investment will not be lost at the end of the project and that you are already planning the phasing out of the project.

Executive summary

Presentation of the organisation

Project background

Problem statement

Goal and objectives

Beneficiaries

Proposed methodology

Budget

Monitoring and evaluation

Sustainability

Annexes

Contents

Institutional sustainability

Technical sustainability

Socio-cultural sustainability

Financial sustainability

Why is it important?

Because donors want to be sure that their investment will not be lost at the end of the project and that you are already planning the phasing out of the project.

11. Annexes Contents Glossary Maps Statistics/ policy documents Proof of registration and tax benefits for donors Financial statement Composition of Board of Directors List of major donors Annual report, brochures & publications Specific studies or evaluation reports Memorandum of agreement with partners Letters of support Pictures Others... Executive summary Presentation of the organisation Project background Problem statement Goal and objectives Beneficiaries Proposed methodology Budget Monitoring and evaluation Sustainability Annexes

Contents

Glossary

Maps

Statistics/ policy documents

Proof of registration and tax benefits for donors

Financial statement

Composition of Board of Directors

List of major donors

Annual report, brochures & publications

Specific studies or evaluation reports

Memorandum of agreement with partners

Letters of support

Pictures

Others...

Executive summary

Presentation of the organisation

Project background

Problem statement

Goal and objectives

Beneficiaries

Proposed methodology

Budget

Monitoring and evaluation

Sustainability

Annexes

11. Annexes Tips Refer to the annexes (see annex xy) in the proposal, but.... If something is crucially important, write it in the proposal! Add a table of content for the annexes Write the annex number on the top of each page “annex n°xy” Separate each annex by a coloured page Executive summary Presentation of the organisation Project background Problem statement Goal and objectives Beneficiaries Proposed methodology Budget Monitoring and evaluation Sustainability Annexes

Tips

Refer to the annexes (see annex xy) in the proposal, but....

If something is crucially important, write it in the proposal!

Add a table of content for the annexes

Write the annex number on the top of each page “annex n°xy”

Separate each annex by a coloured page

Executive summary

Presentation of the organisation

Project background

Problem statement

Goal and objectives

Beneficiaries

Proposed methodology

Budget

Monitoring and evaluation

Sustainability

Annexes

Cover letter (Use letterhead, mention project title, purpose, amount requested, contact person and list of enclosures) Project proposal: Title page with logo Table of contents Executive summary Detailed proposal Annexes Requested attachments (Submit all documents requested by the donor which are not already included in the annexes) Proposal package

Cover letter

(Use letterhead, mention project title, purpose, amount requested, contact person and list of enclosures)

Project proposal:

Title page with logo

Table of contents

Executive summary

Detailed proposal

Annexes

Requested attachments

(Submit all documents requested by the donor which are not already included in the annexes)

Ask someone exterior to the project to read it before any submission to a donor. Final recommendation

Ask someone exterior to the project to read it before any submission to a donor.

CASE STUDY

Case study: Laos project Targeted donor: ECHO (European Community Humanitarian Office) ECHO mandate: humanitarian and emergency actions Context: Need of gap funding between two contracts with EuropeAid ( budget line B7-661 « mines ») EuropeAid mandate: long-term development oriented Project rationale : training of deminers in Laos, Savannakhet Province

Targeted donor: ECHO (European Community Humanitarian Office)

ECHO mandate: humanitarian and emergency actions

Context: Need of gap funding between two contracts with EuropeAid ( budget line B7-661 « mines »)

EuropeAid mandate: long-term development oriented

Project rationale : training of deminers in Laos, Savannakhet Province

Version I: what would you change/improve ? 1. GENERAL INFORMATION   Title of operation: Technical support for the maintenance of Lao National Unexploded Ordnance (UXO LAO) activities in Savannakhet. Province of Lao PDR while preparing the consolidation of a 24 month final phase of the project.   Start-up date: March 2002.

1. GENERAL INFORMATION

 

Title of operation: Technical support for the maintenance of Lao National Unexploded Ordnance (UXO LAO) activities in Savannakhet. Province of Lao PDR while preparing the consolidation of a 24 month final phase of the project.

 

Start-up date: March 2002.

VERSION II: What was written in the final version   VERSION 2 1. GENERAL INFORMATION    Title of operation: Maintenance of Handicap International Technical Assistance to UXO Clearance Operations in Savannakhet Province, Lao PDR   Start-up date: 01 March 2002

  VERSION 2

1. GENERAL INFORMATION

  

Title of operation: Maintenance of Handicap International Technical Assistance to UXO Clearance Operations in Savannakhet Province, Lao PDR

 

Start-up date: 01 March 2002

Version I: what would you change/improve ? VERSION 1 :Number of direct beneficiaries: UXO Lao staff in Savannakhet Province. Currently UXO Lao assisted by HI have 160 deminers, surveyors, community awareness (CA) members and supporting staff in the province. The general population on the four most UXO affected districts of Savannakhet Province will also directly benefit of the clearance operations undertaken by UXO Lao.   The quantitative outputs of UXO LAO Savannakhet in the key activities since the HI project started are: Area Clearance: Agriculture land cleared: 2,534,935m 2 ( 58% of the total land cleared) Roving Tasks: Villages visited: 939 Community Awareness : Villages visited: 561 out of more than 625

VERSION 1 :Number of direct beneficiaries:

UXO Lao staff in Savannakhet Province. Currently UXO Lao assisted by HI have 160 deminers, surveyors, community awareness (CA) members and supporting staff in the province.

The general population on the four most UXO affected districts of Savannakhet Province will also directly benefit of the clearance operations undertaken by UXO Lao.

 

The quantitative outputs of UXO LAO Savannakhet in the key activities since the HI project started are:

Area Clearance: Agriculture land cleared: 2,534,935m 2 ( 58% of the total land cleared)

Roving Tasks: Villages visited: 939

Community Awareness : Villages visited: 561 out of more than 625

VERSION II: What was written in the final version Number of direct beneficiaries: The general population on the seven most UXO affected districts of Savannakhet Province will directly benefit of the clearance operations and awareness activities undertaken by UXO Lao. The direct beneficiaries are more specifically, the populations of the districts of Phine, Xepon, Vilabuly, Nong, Atsaphanthong, Phalan Xai and Atsaphone. The number of direct beneficiaries is estimated to over 22 000 people. The vast majority of the beneficiaries are subsistence farmers from ethnic minority groups in remote areas Through activities undertaken in this programme, the local population will benefit from improved land accessibility, improved land availability, a safer working and living environment and an improved ability to avoid accidents caused by unexploded ordnance. Equally, UXO LAO staff in Savannakhet Province is a direct beneficiary of this programme. Currently UXO Lao staff assisted by HI includes de-miners, surveyors, community awareness (CA) workers and support staff in the province. The number of beneficiaries equals 160 employees of UXO LAO. Through activities undertaken in this programme, UXO LAO employees will benefit from training aimed at safer, more efficient and more diverse unexploded ordinance identification, removal and destruction.

Number of direct beneficiaries:

The general population on the seven most UXO affected districts of Savannakhet Province will directly benefit of the clearance operations and awareness activities undertaken by UXO Lao. The direct beneficiaries are more specifically, the populations of the districts of Phine, Xepon, Vilabuly, Nong, Atsaphanthong, Phalan Xai and Atsaphone. The number of direct beneficiaries is estimated to over 22 000 people. The vast majority of the beneficiaries are subsistence farmers from ethnic minority groups in remote areas Through activities undertaken in this programme, the local population will benefit from improved land accessibility, improved land availability, a safer working and living environment and an improved ability to avoid accidents caused by unexploded ordnance.

Equally, UXO LAO staff in Savannakhet Province is a direct beneficiary of this programme. Currently UXO Lao staff assisted by HI includes de-miners, surveyors, community awareness (CA) workers and support staff in the province. The number of beneficiaries equals 160 employees of UXO LAO. Through activities undertaken in this programme, UXO LAO employees will benefit from training aimed at safer, more efficient and more diverse unexploded ordinance identification, removal and destruction.

Version I: what would you change/improve ? 4.1. Overall objective(s) Phase 4 – Transfer of knowledge, skills and capacities to UXO LAO Savannakhet in respect of the application of comprehensive national procedure across all aspects of the programme leading to the complete withdrawal of HI technical assistance.   4.2. Project purpose/ Specific objective To provide reduced technical support to UXO LAO Savannakhet for UXO area clearance and disposal in order to allow UXO LAO to maintain limited activities to national standards.   This is an interim arrangement of six months that will allow limited continuity of operations for UXO LAO in Savannakhet until implementing partner funding becomes available. This will allow UXO LAO Savannakhet to conduct its full range activities (community awareness, survey, roving and area clearance) to national standards under the technical supervision of Handicap International technical advisor as described in the phase four financing proposal.

4.1. Overall objective(s)

Phase 4 – Transfer of knowledge, skills and capacities to UXO LAO Savannakhet in respect of the application of comprehensive national procedure across all aspects of the programme leading to the complete withdrawal of HI technical assistance.

 

4.2. Project purpose/ Specific objective

To provide reduced technical support to UXO LAO Savannakhet for UXO area clearance and disposal in order to allow UXO LAO to maintain limited activities to national standards.

 

This is an interim arrangement of six months that will allow limited continuity of operations for UXO LAO in Savannakhet until implementing partner funding becomes available. This will allow UXO LAO Savannakhet to conduct its full range activities (community awareness, survey, roving and area clearance) to national standards under the technical supervision of Handicap International technical advisor as described in the phase four financing proposal.

VERSION II: What was written in the final version 4.1.   Overall objectives: The populations of Phine, Xepon, Vilabuly, Nong, Atsaphanthong, Phalan Xai and Atsaphone of Savannakhet Province, Lao PDR live in a safer environment. 4.2. Project purpose/ Specific objective: The negative impacts of UXOs in the districts of Phine, Xepon, Vilabuly, Nong, Atsaphanthong, Phalan Xai and Atsaphone of Savannakhet Province, Lao PDR are reduced.

4.1.   Overall objectives:

The populations of Phine, Xepon, Vilabuly, Nong, Atsaphanthong, Phalan Xai and Atsaphone of Savannakhet Province, Lao PDR live in a safer environment.

4.2. Project purpose/ Specific objective:

The negative impacts of UXOs in the districts of Phine, Xepon, Vilabuly, Nong, Atsaphanthong, Phalan Xai and Atsaphone of Savannakhet Province, Lao PDR are reduced.

Checklist: all the « good questions » to bear in mind when drafting project proposal 1.       Before writing the proposal: -           Is the stakeholder analysis done and complete ? -          Have I established a coherent objective tree and a concrete problem ? -          Have objectives, results and activities been discussed with all partners and accepted ? -          Do I know the donor to whom I will send my proposal (e.g. mandate, criteria, specific format, etc.)? -          Is there an internal organisation that has been set up within HI around this proposal ? and does each person know her tasks ? 2.       When drafting the proposal:   -          Is my proposal coherent (identified problem/suggested activities/proposed mean)? -          Is my proposal precise enough (e.g. explanation of expected results ad intended activities, definition of SMART indicators)? -          Is my proposal understandable by everybody (not to much technical terms, explanation of them, etc.)? -          Do I have really respected the donor’s criteria ? -          Have I put the information in the correct place ? -          Have I corrected all the spelling mistakes ?

1.       Before writing the proposal:

-           Is the stakeholder analysis done and complete ?

-          Have I established a coherent objective tree and a concrete problem ?

-          Have objectives, results and activities been discussed with all partners and accepted ?

-          Do I know the donor to whom I will send my proposal (e.g. mandate, criteria, specific format, etc.)?

-          Is there an internal organisation that has been set up within HI around this proposal ? and does each person know her tasks ?

2.       When drafting the proposal:  

-          Is my proposal coherent (identified problem/suggested activities/proposed mean)?

-          Is my proposal precise enough (e.g. explanation of expected results ad intended activities, definition of SMART indicators)?

-          Is my proposal understandable by everybody (not to much technical terms, explanation of them, etc.)?

-          Do I have really respected the donor’s criteria ?

-          Have I put the information in the correct place ?

-          Have I corrected all the spelling mistakes ?

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