Location-based mLearning reminders

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Information about Location-based mLearning reminders

Published on February 25, 2009

Author: bjornh

Source: slideshare.net

Björn Hedin Royal Institute of Technology Stockholm, Sweden [email_address] http://twitter.com/bjornh Slides available at http://tinyurl.com/iadis09 Location-based mLearning reminders

Quick overview In this study we have … Built a J2ME application to study chemistry on mobile phones Built a J2ME application to remind students to use the chemistry application when they leave or arrive at places they have chosen are suitable for mobile studies Evaluated the use in two university level chemistry courses

Built a J2ME application to study chemistry on mobile phones

Built a J2ME application to remind students to use the chemistry application when they leave or arrive at places they have chosen are suitable for mobile studies

Evaluated the use in two university level chemistry courses

Research questions What are students’ attitudes to Location Based Reminders for mLearning? How well can learning opportunities be detected using such a system? Which places are added, what strategies are used to detect learning opportunities? What are students’ attitudes to a simple (flashcard) system for mobile learning?

What are students’ attitudes to Location Based Reminders for mLearning?

How well can learning opportunities be detected using such a system?

Which places are added, what strategies are used to detect learning opportunities?

What are students’ attitudes to a simple (flashcard) system for mobile learning?

Background Previous studies/projects MUSIS project- Various content pushed to university students' mobile phones Education related reminders most popular content (more than fun videos, music etc) SimpleLearn - Reminders to study sent via email and SMS at times determined by an algorithm. Flashcard system for mobiles/desktop Reminders often occurred at inconvenient times

MUSIS project- Various content pushed to university students' mobile phones

Education related reminders most popular content (more than fun videos, music etc)

SimpleLearn - Reminders to study sent via email and SMS at times determined by an algorithm.

Flashcard system for mobiles/desktop

Reminders often occurred at inconvenient times

Idea The objectives of this study Why not try to send mLearning reminders based on location rather than time Easier to determine that "when I am on the bus on my way to the university" is a good time to study than "at 8.43 AM". Location can be determined using positioning of the student's mobile phone

Why not try to send mLearning reminders based on location rather than time

Easier to determine that "when I am on the bus on my way to the university" is a good time to study than "at 8.43 AM".

Location can be determined using positioning of the student's mobile phone

Determining your location Mobile positioning Location Based Services for mobile phones is a rapidly growing area GPS often used but... No coverage indoors or underground Drains battery very rapidly Position of current GSM cell an alternative Available on low-end phones Coverage everywhere Low power consumption but less precise location (or not even a location at all)

Location Based Services for mobile phones is a rapidly growing area

GPS often used but...

No coverage indoors or underground

Drains battery very rapidly

Position of current GSM cell an alternative

Available on low-end phones

Coverage everywhere

Low power consumption

but less precise location (or not even a location at all)

Level of precision needed? Do we need 5, 50 or 500 meter accuracy? Symbolic places more important than coordinates, i.e. "At home", "At the university" or "On the metro” Changes are important, i.e. "when I leave home and enter the metro” Especially the metro is easy to detect For this functionality GSM cell based location could work out fine for Location Based Reminders (LBR)

Symbolic places more important than coordinates, i.e. "At home", "At the university" or "On the metro”

Changes are important, i.e. "when I leave home and enter the metro”

Especially the metro is easy to detect

For this functionality GSM cell based location could work out fine for Location Based Reminders (LBR)

The reminder application Basic functionality Detects places through GSM cell id (no coordinates) Students can “add places” (or “meaningful locations”) The phone searches for nearby GSM cells, and the students attaches a label to them (At home, Metro …) Attach study reminders to places for “arrive-”, “at-” or “leave”-events. Next time the student enters or leaves such a place, a reminder is triggered asking if the student would like to study using the chemistry application

Detects places through GSM cell id (no coordinates)

Students can “add places” (or “meaningful locations”)

The phone searches for nearby GSM cells, and the students attaches a label to them (At home, Metro …)

Attach study reminders to places for “arrive-”, “at-” or “leave”-events.

Next time the student enters or leaves such a place, a reminder is triggered asking if the student would like to study using the chemistry application

The reminder application Adding a new place

The chemistry application Basic functionality Flashcard-like system See a question Press button to see answer Self assessment – Knew answer well, to some extent or not at all Session of 10 questions Questions you didn’t know answer to will appear again next time, questions you know will be replaced by new questions

Flashcard-like system

See a question

Press button to see answer

Self assessment – Knew answer well, to some extent or not at all

Session of 10 questions

Questions you didn’t know answer to will appear again next time, questions you know will be replaced by new questions

The chemistry application Picture questions + self assessment

The chemistry application Text questions with short answers

The chemistry application Text questions with long answers

Results Technical problems encountered Results from user study 11 university students in two courses Content adapted for the courses Used applications for one week Suggested improvements

Technical problems encountered

Results from user study

11 university students in two courses

Content adapted for the courses

Used applications for one week

Suggested improvements

Implementation issues APIs to get cell information not available on all Java implementations and/or platforms Problems with implementing sound- and vibration alerts from Java programs running in the background Autostart of application

APIs to get cell information not available on all Java implementations and/or platforms

Problems with implementing sound- and vibration alerts from Java programs running in the background

Autostart of application

Problems with “places” One place associated with several cells Cell changes can be changed several times per minute even if the phone remains stationary Some cells appear very rarely, thereby making them difficult to detect Right: One hour at my office (red dot). Three cells detected. Five cells during whole day (Scale: Smaller circles = 500m)

Cell changes can be changed several times per minute even if the phone remains stationary

Some cells appear very rarely, thereby making them difficult to detect

Right: One hour at my office (red dot). Three cells detected. Five cells during whole day

(Scale: Smaller circles = 500m)

Problems with “places”(2) One cell associated with several places The cells to the right can be connected to “ the university” “ Metro station Tekniska Högskolan” “ Bus 4” Difficult to know whether I arrived at the university or if I am just passing by in a bus

The cells to the right can be connected to

“ the university”

“ Metro station Tekniska Högskolan”

“ Bus 4”

Difficult to know whether I arrived at the university or if I am just passing by in a bus

User study results Reminders Sometimes forgot to start application ->Autostart would be a good feature. Long time to detect departures from less densely populated areas (with large cells) Most appreciated reminders: When travelling by public transport. “ On-place”-reminders not used much

Sometimes forgot to start application ->Autostart would be a good feature.

Long time to detect departures from less densely populated areas (with large cells)

Most appreciated reminders: When travelling by public transport.

“ On-place”-reminders not used much

User study results Places Most places added were “informal learning environments” The university was only added to be reminded when leaving the campus Everyone added “at home” Detecting places worked fairly well

Most places added were “informal learning environments”

The university was only added to be reminded when leaving the campus

Everyone added “at home”

Detecting places worked fairly well

User study results Suitable mLearning places Public transport was considered best Phone size convenient in cramped places Felt it was “Bonus study time” – they don’t do much else useful anyway Home N ice break from other activities Easier to study on phone for 10 minutes than to open your books

Public transport was considered best

Phone size convenient in cramped places

Felt it was “Bonus study time” – they don’t do much else useful anyway

Home

N ice break from other activities

Easier to study on phone for 10 minutes than to open your books

User study results Motivation Bonus time – study at places not possible otherwise F un way to learn Promotes regular studies “ Microlearning” possible

Bonus time – study at places not possible otherwise

F un way to learn

Promotes regular studies

“ Microlearning” possible

Suggested improvements Add questions/flashcards of your own Share questions/flashcards with friends Let learning content be anything accessible via a URL Mobile web, v ideo, audio, Evernote, Google Docs, eBooks, local files Web interface + synchronization for easier editing of tags/URLs Learning portal with learning content/activities to choose from

Add questions/flashcards of your own

Share questions/flashcards with friends

Let learning content be anything accessible via a URL

Mobile web, v ideo, audio, Evernote, Google Docs, eBooks, local files

Web interface + synchronization for easier editing of tags/URLs

Learning portal with learning content/activities to choose from

Suggested improvements(2) Make it possible to attach several tags to one cell Implement ”add tag to current cell” Implement continuous tagging mode Add time restrictions, i.e. “Only weekdays between 8 A.M. and 8 P.M. Adaptive reminders, i.e. if reminders don’t trigger actions, remind less often

Make it possible to attach several tags to one cell

Implement ”add tag to current cell”

Implement continuous tagging mode

Add time restrictions, i.e. “Only weekdays between 8 A.M. and 8 P.M.

Adaptive reminders, i.e. if reminders don’t trigger actions, remind less often

Discussion Do we really want students to get such reminders? Planning yourself? Increased stress? Perha ps very infrequent reminders could be good? “ You took the exam XXX six months ago. Would you like to review the exam questions”?

Do we really want students to get such reminders?

Planning yourself?

Increased stress?

Perha ps very infrequent reminders could be good?

“ You took the exam XXX six months ago. Would you like to review the exam questions”?

That’s it – Questions? Slides available at http://tinyurl.com /iadis09 Follow me on Twitter at http://twitter.com/bjornh Contact me via email at [email_address]

Slides available at http://tinyurl.com /iadis09

Follow me on Twitter at http://twitter.com/bjornh

Contact me via email at [email_address]

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