Published on March 12, 2014
Literature Review Dr. Faisal Al-Allaf Assistant Professor of Genetics and Molecular Medicine email@example.com Tel/Fax: 5270000 Ext: 4197/4198
Dr. Faisal Al-Allaf, firstname.lastname@example.org Dealing with writing blocks No time Personal problems or illness You do not know what to do You do not know where to begin
Dr. Faisal Al-Allaf, email@example.com Getting Ready to Write Pre-write Write inside out Follow the guidelines of the funding agencies Work from an outline Find a model proposal Find a mentor Establish a timetable and meet periodically Review, pretest, and revise repeatedly
Dr. Faisal Al-Allaf, firstname.lastname@example.org Elements of a Proposal Title Abstract or summary Introduction Problem or needs statement Project goals and objectives Literature review Project method or design Project evaluation Project management Organizational capabilities Project budget Resumes of Applicants
Dr. Faisal Al-Allaf, email@example.com What is a Literature Review? Background Literature review is a section which sets the proposed study in context and gives its rationale It is a classification and evaluation of what other researchers have written on a topic, organized chronologically or according to the research objectives This section cites previous research that is relevant and indicates the problems with prior research and what uncertainties remain
Dr. Faisal Al-Allaf, firstname.lastname@example.org Literature Review: Background and Significance Significance Specify how the findings of the proposed study will help resolve uncertainties Potential discovery and/or new scientific knowledge How the finding will influence practice guidelines or public health policy. Will the results of the research fill a defined gap in our knowledge or advance our understanding of this subject? Will the research facilitate the development of valuable techniques or experimental models, lead to rational treatment for some pathological condition, or change existing practices? Is this research likely to yield new conclusions that will have general theoretical value or practical clinical significance, or impact on the delivery or organization of practices or health services?
Dr. Faisal Al-Allaf, email@example.com Why do a Literature Review? To place the study in a historical perspective To define and limit the problem To explain how the question to be investigated fits into the larger picture To asks why to approached the topic this way To allows the readers to be brought up to date regarding the state of research in the field and familiarizes them to any contrasting perspectives and viewpoints on the topic. Does my professional background, research experience, past progress in the topic, knowledge in the field and preliminary experiments, as outlined in this application demonstrate that I am qualified to perform the study Do I have the technical competence and skills needed for the proposed work, and that my results will be reliable and inspire confidence in my peers?
Dr. Faisal Al-Allaf, firstname.lastname@example.org Components of Literature Review: Searching, Assessing, and Integrating Literature review is A critical reading (searching) Analyses (assessing) Summarizing (integrating) of peer reviewed articles about a specific topic to determine the following: What is known about the topic? How it is correlated with the research question? What kind of answers will the study provide? It is not a list of all the books and papers that you have read
Dr. Faisal Al-Allaf, email@example.com Components of Literature Review: Literature search (searching) What is known about the subject? Find materials relevant to the subject and avoid irrelevant references Make sure that you have collected thoroughly Your favorite search engine may not find most of the relevant literature! Place the study in a historical perspective and avoid unnecessary duplication Not all relevant materials are published - show familiarity with unpublished work, gained through personal contacts Identify the next logical stage of research beyond your current application Not all appropriate sources of information will be relevant all of the time
Dr. Faisal Al-Allaf, firstname.lastname@example.org Components of Literature Review: Literature search (searching) Provide preliminary data, this extremely important section helps build reviewers confidence that you can handle the technologies, understand the methods, and interpret results. Preliminary data should support the hypothesis to be tested and the feasibility of the project. Explain how the preliminary results are valid and how early studies will be expanded in scope or size. Preliminary data may consist of your own publications, publications of others, unpublished data from your own laboratory or from others, or some combination of these. Include manuscripts submitted for publication. Make sure it is clear which data are yours and which were reported by others.
Dr. Faisal Al-Allaf, email@example.com Components of Literature Review: Data evaluation (assessing): Is there consensus about the topic? What sources of information or data were identified that might be useful to you? Are there any gaps in the knowledge of the subject? Have areas of further study been identified by other researchers that you may want to consider? What aspects have generated significant debate on the topic? What is the most productive methodology for your research based on the literature you have reviewed?
Dr. Faisal Al-Allaf, firstname.lastname@example.org Components of Literature Review: Data evaluation (assessing): Review critically and organize logically the data and events that led to the present proposal Determine which literature makes a significant contribution to the understanding of the topic. Determine if the findings and conclusions should be relied upon and are not misleading (Evaluate research methods). Ask, does this background information justify the next step, which is this proposal? Ask, have I made a clear distinction between (a) what others/or collaborators have done, (b) what I have done, (c) what I intend to do? Ask, have I demonstrated a thorough understanding and a balanced knowledge of the pertinent literature, and have I emphasized or clarified discrepancies?
Dr. Faisal Al-Allaf, email@example.com Components of Literature Review: Data interpretation (integrating) Literature review may exhibit apparent contradictions Discuss the findings and conclusions of relevant literature Determine the advantages and disadvantages of previously used methodologies Identify ways to improve conceptual frameworks for research Identify promising future research Ask, have the preliminary studies demonstrated that the methods, procedures, techniques, and protocols are feasible, adequate and appropriate, and that the hypothesis is therefore readily testable? What methods or problems were identified by others studying in the field and how might they impact your research? What is the current status of research in this area?
Dr. Faisal Al-Allaf, firstname.lastname@example.org Effective Literature Review Compare and contrast different researchers' views on an issue Group research that draw similar conclusions Criticize aspects of methodology Note areas in which authors are in disagreement Highlight perfect studies Highlight gaps in research Show how your study relates to previous studies Show how your study relates to the literature in general Conclude by summarizing what the literature says Caulley, 1992
Dr. Faisal Al-Allaf, email@example.com Plagiarism The deliberate or reckless representation/Publication of another author's language, thoughts, ideas, or expressions, and the representation of them as one's own original work To avoid plagiarism, you must give credit whenever you use another person’s idea, opinion, or theory any facts, statistics, graphs, drawings any pieces of information—that are not common knowledge; quotations of another person’s actual spoken or written words paraphrase of another person’s spoken or written words. How to paraphrase & avoid plagiarism? http://www.indiana.edu/~wts/pamphlets/plagiarism.shtml http://www.unc.edu/depts/wcweb/handouts/plagiarism.html
Dr. Faisal Al-Allaf, firstname.lastname@example.org References It is advisable to use software to cite and organize your references Endnotes Reference manager
Dr. Faisal Al-Allaf, email@example.com Characteristics of a Good Literature Review Clarity of the presentation Clear outline Meaningful subheadings Point by point summaries Concise tables Simple diagram Potential flaws
Dr. Faisal Al-Allaf, firstname.lastname@example.org THANK YOU
1. Literature Review Dr. Faisal Al-Allaf Assistant Professor of Genetics and Molecular Medicine email@example.com Tel/Fax: 5270000 Ext: 4197/4198 2. Dr ...
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