Literacy Beyond 4th Grade

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Information about Literacy Beyond 4th Grade
Education

Published on January 22, 2008

Author: Urban

Source: authorstream.com

Literacy Work Beyond 4th Grade::  Literacy Work Beyond 4th Grade: Working with Students & Teachers Jacy Ippolito, ippolija@gse.harvard.edu, © 2006 Introductions:  Introductions Who am I? Who are you? During this presentation I hope to have us: Think about challenges of literacy work beyond 4th grade Think about strategies for working with middle school students/teachers A Opening Activity . . .:  A Opening Activity . . . Take a look at the two passages (fiction/non-fiction) Talk with a partner about what makes the passages difficult for older readers What challenges are posed for specific groups of students (LD, ESL, etc.)? Given these passages, what is main work of literacy instruction beyond 4th grade? So . . . What’s It All About?:  So . . . What’s It All About? These passages are just a taste of the complexity of literacy work beyond 4th grade Beyond 4th Grade, it’s all about: Reading to Learn Learning to Read (within content areas!) Motivation Strategy Instruction Vocabulary / Background Knowledge The Reading-Writing Connection Assessment Text Factors / Genre So? That’s the Same as K-4!:  So? That’s the Same as K-4! Well . . . Yes . . . and No . . . Same literacy components: Comprehension, vocabulary, fluency, etc. But . . . different instructional formats and different instructional challenges: Literature circles, subject area literacy instruction, longer reading/writing blocks (or radically shortened!) Increased expectations around performance, Increased vocab./background knowledge gaps Big Differences from K-4?:  Big Differences from K-4? Books are longer Assumptions about student differences: Vocabulary varies widely Background Knowledge varies widely History of school/reading success Students’ internal motivation is a bigger consideration And . . . ? So, How Do We Help Students Beyond 4th Grade?:  So, How Do We Help Students Beyond 4th Grade? Let’s return first to our opening activity Turn to a partner, and together: Identify one aspect of the text that might prove difficult (e.g. background info., vocabulary, syntax, motivation, etc.) What are one or two activities that might help students with regard to these challenges? How Do We Tackle Literacy Instruction Systematically?:  How Do We Tackle Literacy Instruction Systematically? Reading Workshop - Increased independent reading at “independent levels” - lots of student choice regarding text selection Guided Reading / Literature Circles with “instructional texts” - to work on increasing advanced reading skills Discussion groups / Book Clubs to encourage literary language and the social acceptance of reading as an adolescent activity Whole-Class Activities?:  Whole-Class Activities? Whole-class mini-lessons during reading and writing workshops, guided reading groups, etc. Whole-class read-alouds as a way of modeling reading strategies. Whole-class books - everyone reading the same book at the same time - community builder? Or the fastest way to bore your top readers and frustrate your lowest readers? What do you think? Strategy Instruction  Comprehension:  Strategy Instruction  Comprehension Strategies That Work by Stephanie Harvey & Anne Goudvis Making Connections, Questioning, Visualizing, Inferring, Determining Importance, Synthesizing, etc. Mosaic of Thought: Teaching Comprehension in a Reader's Workshop by Susan Zimmermann, Ellin Oliver Keene Connecting the Known to the New, Determining Importance, Using Sensory Images to Enhance Comprehension, Inferring, Synthesis, etc. See any similarities? Strategy Instruction in Action:  Strategy Instruction in Action Let’s try this out . . . Turn to a partner and consider our sample texts again. What are one or two “comprehension strategies” that could help students with these passages? Do these strategies really work? Are these what we use as fluent, capable readers? What are the Limits / Down-sides to Strategy Instruction?:  What are the Limits / Down-sides to Strategy Instruction? What (if any) are the limits or down-sides to strategy instruction? Are there times when it restricts readers or slows them down? Are there times when we want to slow readers down at this stage of reading? WAIT . . . WHAT STAGE OF READING ARE WE TALKING ABOUT HERE ANYWAY? Slide13:  Stages of Reading Development by Jeanne Chall (graphic from Nonie Lesaux) Stage 1 Initial Decoding (1st gr.) Stage 2 Fluency (2nd/3rd gr.) Stage 3 Reading for Meaning (4th gr.) Stage 4 Relationships & Viewpoints (high school) Stage 5 Synthesis (university) Learning to Read Reading to Learn Slide14:  Stage 1 Initial Decoding (1st gr.) Stage 5 Synthesis (university) Stages of Reading Development by Jeanne Chall (graphic from Nonie Lesaux) Stage 2 Fluency (2nd/3rd gr.) Stage 3 Reading for Meaning (4th gr.) Learning to Read Reading to Learn Stage 4 Relationships & Viewpoints (high school) Where Does This Leave Us Regarding Literacy Work Beyond 4th Grade?:  Where Does This Leave Us Regarding Literacy Work Beyond 4th Grade? Working with students in Language Arts classes of course . . . . But also in small groups (Literacy Classes), one-on-one (pull-out or inclusion), and in content area classes Some of the most important work is with coaching other teachers - both Lang. Arts teachers and Content Area teachers Encouraging Literacy Work Across Content Areas :  Encouraging Literacy Work Across Content Areas “One of the biggest challenges that I have found in teaching at the Middle school level . . . [is] the inability of teachers who are not English teachers to view themselves as literacy teachers.” 6th-8th grade English teacher Responses to this quote? Encouraging Literacy Work Across Content Areas :  Encouraging Literacy Work Across Content Areas Do I Really Have to Teach Reading? Content Comprehension, Grades 6-12 by Cris Tovani Also wrote (with Keene) I Read It, But I Don’t Get It - another helpful comprehension strategy book Some great recommendations for literacy work with content area teachers Germs / Science Teacher / Motivating textbook reading example! Things to Remember as a Middle/Upper Grades Coach or Professional Developer:  Things to Remember as a Middle/Upper Grades Coach or Professional Developer Both the teachers and school-at-large are on a continuum of instructional practice and learning (just as students are!) Look first at the Language Arts teachers and literacy specialists - are they individualizing instruction? Look next at Content Area teachers - are they taking into consideration literacy challenges as they proceed to deliver content material? Things to Remember as a Middle/Upper Grades Coach or Professional Developer:  Things to Remember as a Middle/Upper Grades Coach or Professional Developer OBSERVE FIRST . . . BEWARE OF SNAP JUDGEMENTS ABOUT TEACHERS’ ABILITIES OR PRACTICES!!! Consider what next steps might be for individual teachers: Increasing assessment practices? Offering more substantial vocabulary support? Explicitly teaching text structures? Creating small groups for book discussion? Rome wasn’t built in a day . . . reform efforts take time and teacher buy-in show the teachers you know your work first Then lead by example; push for small changes OK . . . Deep Breath . . . Now for Something Completely Different!:  OK . . . Deep Breath . . . Now for Something Completely Different! Let’s take a look at two video clips of teachers working with middle/upper grade students . . . . What do we notice? How does it compare to working with lower grade students? Tutor Working One-on-One with a 6th Grade Student:  Tutor Working One-on-One with a 6th Grade Student Tutor Working with Two 6th Grade Students:  Tutor Working with Two 6th Grade Students Discussion Time!:  Discussion Time! Let’s chat . . . . What are things you’re thinking about given this presentation, the reading passages, the video clips, you’re upcoming work with older students, and the myriad of things I didn’t cover today (e.g. the reading-writing connection, types/genres of reading materials, arts and literacy connections, research on older readers, etc.) Interested in Adolescent Literacy Research?:  Interested in Adolescent Literacy Research? Two sites to get you started . . . Alliance for Excellent Education Adolescent Literacy Research http://www.all4ed.org/adolescent_literacy/index.html Reading Next report by Gina Biancarosa and Catherine Snow http://www.ncte.org/edpolicy/literacy/research/122355.htm

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