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Linking words that express contrast

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Information about Linking words that express contrast
Education

Published on February 21, 2014

Author: lachesisbraick

Source: slideshare.net

Description

ESL lesson on discourse makers
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Expressing contrast Integrated Writing Task

• In spite of / despite • Although / even though / though

in spite of / despite We use them to express contrast. They are synonyms.

Remember! In spite is followed by “of” • In spite of/ despite + v-ing, clause (subject +verb) • Example: In spite of/despite revising for hours, I didn’t do well in the test.

• In spite of/ despite + noun phrase, clause (subject +verb) • Example: Despite my revision, I didn’t do well in the test.

• We can also put in spite of / despite in the middle of a sentence (use commas) • I didn’t do well in the test, despite revising for hours.

Although/ even though / though • We use them to express that the result of something was unexpected • Even though is stronger than although/though. • I enjoyed the party, even though/ although/though I didn’t like the music. • (My not liking the music was not expected at first)

• FORM • ALTHOUGH + CLAUSE (subject + verb), CLAUSE (subject + verb) • Although it was cloudy, we went to the beach.

Use the appropriate linker: • ……. my warnings, he went to North Korea. • Despite/ in spite of my warnings, he went to North Korea.

• … she didn’t feel like going to the cinema, she enjoyed the film in the end. • Even though/although she didn’t feel like going to the cinema, she enjoyed the film in the end.

• They visited Paris, ………. they didn’t have time to visit the Eiffel Tower. • They visited Paris, even though/although they didn’t have time to visit the Eiffel Tower.

• She decided to go abroad for a year, ……… not speaking the language very well. • She decided to go abroad for a year, despite/in spite of not speaking the language very well.

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