Linked Open Data and Applications

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Information about Linked Open Data and Applications

Published on February 24, 2014

Author: vdeboer



Intelligent Web Applications guest lecture about LOD and how to use it for applications. Includes pointers and demos for MultimediaN Eculture, Verrijkt Koninkrijk, Dutch Ships and Sailors, IATI 2LOD and RadioMarche

Linked Open Data and Applications Victor de Boer Intelligent Web Applications 24/2/2014 With slides from Rinke Hoekstra

Victor de Boer Assistant professor at VU University Amsterdam Domain-driven Semantic Technologies, Linked Data Cultural Heritage Digital History Linked Data for Development

Today • What is LOD? – What’s in it for me (the developer)? • What can I do with LOD – Examples • My LOD projects and applications • Pointers, examples, inspiration

What is Linked Open Data?

Linked Data is about technology for interoperability Open Data is about licenses to allow reuse

Linked Data five star system ★ Available on the web (whatever format), but with an open license ★★ Available as machine-readable structured data (e.g. excel instead of image scan of a table) ★★★ as (2) plus non-proprietary format (e.g. CSV instead of excel) ★★★★ All the above plus, Use open standards from W3C (RDF and SPARQL) to identify things, so that people can point at your stuff ★★★★★ All the above, plus: Link your data to other people’s data to provide context

“Linking Open Data cloud diagram, by Richard Cyganiak and Anja Jentzsch.”

Where can I get it? • • • • • • • • • • • • • Rinke Hoekstra

What can I do with it?

Web of Documents (WWW) Linked Documents

Web of Data Linked Data

Without… Slide stolen from Christophe Gueret

With Linked Data Slide stolen from Christophe Gueret

So how do I do it?

Three main ways of accessing remote Linked Data 1. Through HTTP request on the resource URI 2. Through SPARQL queries 3. Get a copy of a dataset (Linked Data Platform, Linked Data API)

1. Through HTTP request on the resource URI • HTTP GET on resource, parse, follow links – Simple HTTP requests and RDF parsing – One request per resource: may require many requests • Local caching can be done • Crawling

2. Through SPARQL queries • Full-blown query language • Needs SPARQL endpoint $query = "SELECT distinct ?title ?description WHERE { ?x <> <>. ?x <> ?title. ?x <> ?description } LIMIT 10 "; $requestURL = ''.urlencode($query); $response = request($requestURL); SPARQL in PHP example

3. Get a local copy of a dataset • • • through SPARQL CONSTRUCT, crawling or direct file download • Save in triple store – or convert to something else

RDF Libraries Redland: Perl, Python, PHP, Ruby, C#, Objective-C Jena: Java RDFLib: Python ARC2: PHP ActiveRDF: Ruby

What can I do with it?

Examples: Linked Data Browsers Allow you to browse remote linked data, clicking through linked resources and visualising images etc. TimBL's Tabulator Disco Marbles OpenLink data browser Explore more! • • • • •

OpenPhacts explorer

Fancy mashups

Intelligent Web Apps! • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Rinke Hoekstra

Enough about me, let’s talk about me.

Multimedia E-culture Demonstrator

MultimediaN E-Culture project • Museums have increasingly nice websites • But: most of them are driven by stand-alone collection databases • Data is isolated, both syntactically and semantically • If users can do cross-collection search, the individual collections become more valuable! • Semantic Search

MultimediaN E-Culture 2003-2008: UvA, VU, CWI, DEN, ICN “Use Semantic Web techniques to facilitate interoperability between cultural heritage institutes”


Semantic search • Search for via annotations with concepts (semantic links) • Use the type of semantic link to provide meaningful presentation of the search results Query “Paris” Paris PartOf Montmartre 30

vocabulary alignment “Tokugawa” AAT style/period Edo (Japanese period) Tokugawa AAT is Getty’s Art & Architecture Thesaurus SVCN period Edo SVCN is local in-house ethnology thesaurus 31

Search, Show and Annotate  Multiple search/browse/result interfaces  Google-like  Local view  Map  Graph display  Facet browser  Split up data based on attribute-values  Multiple criteria  Annotation Interface  Use of semantic autocompletion  Experts  Laypeople? 32

Verrijkt Koninkrijk

Het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden in de Tweede Wereldoorlog History of German occupied Dutch society (1940-1945) Published between 1969 and 1991 in 14 volumes, 30 parts, 18.000 pages 1. Digitization, 2. Open Data, 3. Enriched access with Linked Open Data

country, collection, doc-type, volume, chapter, section, sub-section,

SKOS vocabularies as stepping stones Back-of-the-book index (SKOS) 15.234 Concepts 121.525 references Named Entities (SKOS) 88.249 Concepts 364,924 references

niod:oai_wo2_niod_nl_rec_1020 45 dct:subject niod:Blitzkrieg skos:exactMatc h botb:Blitzkrieg

skos:exactMatch skos:exactMatch Dereferenceable URIs!

Geographical analysis using background knowledge from GeoNames 12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 NE index SELECT * WHERE { ?s skos:prefLabel ?pl. ?s skos:closeMatch ?geo. ?geo gn:parentADM1 ?prov. ?prov gn:name ?provname. ?s niod:pageRef ?pref. } BotB index SPARQL for R

Results are links to paragraphs

Quick analysis, inspiring researchers Jewish 5% Communist 8% R-Catholic 12% Liberal 12% Protestant 13% NationalSocialist 29% SocialDemocrat 21% Pillar1 Pillar2 Liber. Protestant Protestan t R-Cath. Liber. R-Cath. Comm Soc-dem Liber. Soc-dem Co 0.29 0.22 0.21 0.20 0.15


Dutch Ships and Sailors

Dutch Ships and Sailors VOC Opvarenden Dutch Asiatic Shipping Generale Zeemonsterrollen Noordelijke Monsterrollen KB Newspapers

1782 Web of Data gz:Batavia gz:Mercuur gz:Claas Roem gz:Buijksloot 19-12-1780 das:Texel das:Departure 20-7-1781 das:Batavia das:Arrival das:Voyage1 das:Roem, Klaas voc:Buijksloot voc:Claas Roem das:Mercuur 1752

Example web application? VOC Opvarenden Dutch Asiatic Shipping Generale Zeemonsterrollen Noordelijke Monsterrollen KB Newspapers

Linked Data 4 Development

Linked Data for International Aid Transparency Initiative Msc. Thesis by Kasper Brandt Victor de Boer

Introduction - IATI “IATI is a voluntary, multi-stakeholder initiative that seeks to improve the transparency of aid in order to increase its effectiveness in tackling poverty.” --

IATI datamodel Activities Organisations Aid Type Country Currency Geographical precision Language Location type Organisation role Policy marker Region Sector Transaction type Vocabularies

Model and links based on requirements elicitated from experts Iterative Requirements Engineering Process Model by Loucopoulos and Karakostas

Linking datasets and Applications User questions 1. In total, how much does a given country receive in aid? 2. A comparative index of aid versus the Human Development Index. 3. What is the geographic location of a project? How much aid went to a given province, constituency or village? o Is the aid spent in places where the need is highest? Is it well distributed across the country? o Can we attribute sub-national breakdowns for aid so we can see how much goes to different parts of recipient countries? 4. How does violent conflict in recipient countries affect aid activities? 5. How does aid spending as registered in the IATI standard compare to World Bank indicators?

IATI 2 LOD application 1. In total, how much does a given country receive in aid? 2. A comparative index of aid versus the Human Development Index. 4. How does violent conflict in recipient countries affect aid activities? 5. How does aid spending as registered in the IATI standard compare to World Bank indicators?

Talking to Linked Data

RadioMarché Local market data Communiqué Web Interface Text-To-Speech GSM/Voice interface Sahel Eco operative Buyers Community radio

EcoMash [M.Sc. thesis by Henk Kroon]

Linked Data for Development (LD4D) Agrovoc GeoNames DBpedia ‘Allo, Linked Data? RadioMarché Linked market data * <VoiceXML> to SPARQL Web applications Voice browser Tel: +31208080855 Skype: +990009369996162208

Linked Open Data… …should make it easier for developers to develop IWAs … from distributed datasources … with heterogeneous data Go build stuff!

Links to datasets and applications • • • • • • • • /sparql/query= /user/query /yasgui/index.html

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