Published on March 13, 2014
Contents Political participation Types of Political Participation Forms of Political Participation Demographic Characteristics of political participation Political development Characteristics of political development Impact of political participation on political development Political participation as crises in political development Conclusion
Political participation Political participation affords citizens in a democracy an opportunity to communicate information to government officials about their concerns and preferences and to put pressure on them to respond. (Verba, 1995) Political participation includes activities that have the intent or effect of influencing government action- either directly influencing the selection of people who make these policies; that participation is not obligatory and receives no pay or only taken financial compensation. (Verba, 1995)
Types of Political Participation
Forms of Political Participation Voting Working in and contributing to electoral campaigns Contacting government officials Attending protests, marches, or demonstrations Working informally with the others to solve same community problems Serving without pay on local elected & appointed boards Being active politically through the intermediation of voluntry associations Contributing money to political causes
political participation Education Race and ethnicity Gender Religious involvement Age Two party competition
Political development According to Eisentadt, Political development is conceived as a process of meeting new goals and demands in a flexible manner. It has in fact, been suggested that flexibility of symbols, of institutions, of establishing and meeting goals and demands, is the central element of modernization process. Gabrial Almond conceives of political development as the acquisition by political system of a “new capability, in the sense of a specialized role structure and differentiated orientations which together give a political system the possibility of responding efficiently, and more or less autonomously, to a new range of problems.”
Development Equality: it involves the concept of equal and objective application of laws to all citizens. It also includes the concept of political recruitment based on merit and performance and not on inscriptive consideration. Capacity: the capacity of a political system to effect the social and economic life of the society through its outputs. Differentiation and Specialization: Along with differentiation, there is increased functional specialization of various roles within the system and it also involves the integration of complex structures and processes.
Impact of political participation on political development Lucian W. Pye links Political development with political awakening of people. The process of mass participation is a legitimate part of political development but it also have the dangers of sterile emotionalism or corrupting demography, both can weaken the strength of society. Political participation can lead to the acceptance of a political system characterized by many demonstrations, mass responses to elite manipulation, populist movements etc, as a politically developed system. According to Samuel P. Huntington, In today’s world, equality of political participation is growing more rapidly then is the “art of associating together.” He cariticizes the mobilization and participation. According to Huntington as the mobilization and participation are increasing, the institutionalization is being less focused, and it is leading towards political decay.
in political development Political participation can be a crises in political development. New participants can create a strain on existing institutions As new segments of population will enter in politics then new interests and new issues will arise.
Conclusion There is an obvious correlation between political development and political participation. The problem with political Participation is the classic issue of balancing popular sentiments with public order. Political participation depends on the way the people think and if they take the responsibility to be active. In this way it will leads the political system towards democracy and building of democracy is the process of political development.
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