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Published on November 16, 2007

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More on Proximity Principle 2. More on Wernicke’s Area 3. Agrammatism:  More on Proximity Principle 2. More on Wernicke’s Area 3. Agrammatism Ling 411 – 09 Proximity principle:  Proximity principle Other opinions on Wernicke’s area:  Other opinions on Wernicke’s area Blumstein, Pinker, Pulvermüller The speech output of Wernicke’s aphasics is erratic Phonological defects (Blumstein) Syntactic and discourse defects Pinker, Pulvermüller Therefore, Wernicke’s area not for speech recognition after all Sheila Blumstein’s View:  Sheila Blumstein’s View Blumstein (Brown University): Phonology is subserved by a network located all over the perisylvian area She is unwilling to identify different local functions for different parts of this area Pulvermüller also takes this position Blumstein on speech production (1995:923):  Blumstein on speech production (1995:923) “Nevertheless, although it is clearly distinct from that of anterior aphasics, posterior aphasics do display a subtle phonetic impairment. Most typically, they show increased variability in the implementation of a number of phonetic parameters…including vowel formant frequencies…and vowel durations…. The neurobiology of the sound structure of language. in The Cognitive Neurosciences (ed. Michael Gazzaniga) Blumstein on speech production (1995:923):  Blumstein on speech production (1995:923) “The role of [anterior and posterior] brain structures in speech production seems to be different, because anterior patients show clear-cut phonetic impairments while posterior patients show subclinical phonetic impairments. Nevertheless, both anterior and posterior structures ultimately contribute to the speech production process. The neurobiology of the sound structure of language. in The Cognitive Neurosciences (ed. Michael Gazzaniga) Blumstein on speech production (1995:923):  Blumstein on speech production (1995:923) “The nature of the posterior mechanism contributing to articulatory implementation is not clear. …. …the auditory feedback system normally contributing to the control of the articulatory parameters of speech may be impaired. More research is required to determine the nature of the mechanisms involved, but what is clear is that the traditional dichotomy between production, subserved by anterior brain structures, and perception, subserved solely by posterior structures, is not supported.” Blumstein’s conclusion (1995:927):  Blumstein’s conclusion (1995:927) “…the neural localization of the processes involved in speech production and speech perception seems to be broadly distributed in the perisylvian area of the left hemisphere, not narrowly localized. The only exception seems to be the evidence of specific neural substrates relating to the phonetic implementation of speech; these areas correspond to the left inferior frontal cortex and the precentral gyrus, particularly for the larynx and the face. The classical view, in which speech production is subserved by anterior brain structures and reception is subserved by posterior brain structures, is not supported…” Erratic Syntax in Wernicke’s Aphasia:  Erratic Syntax in Wernicke’s Aphasia Steven Pinker: Wernicke’s area …was once thought to underlie language comprehension. But that would not explain why the speech of these patients sounds so psychotic. The Language Instinct (1994) Friedemann Pulvermüller: …patients with Wernicke’s aphasia have difficulty speaking…. These deficits are typical…and cannot be easily explained by assuming a selective lesion to a center devoted to language comprehension. The Neuroscience of Language (2002) Some speech of a Wernicke’s aphasic:  Some speech of a Wernicke’s aphasic I feel very well. My hearing, writing been doing well. Things that I couldn’t hear from. In other words, I used to be able to work cigarettes I didn’t know how…. Chesterfeela, for 20 years I can write it. Example from Goodglass (1993:86) More, from a (different) Wernicke’s aphasic:  More, from a (different) Wernicke’s aphasic Examiner: What kind of work have you done? Patient: We, the kids, all of us, and I, we were working for a long time in the ... you know ... it's the kind of space, I mean place rear to the spedawn ... Examiner: Excuse me, but I wanted to know what work you have been doing. Patient: If you had said that, we had said that, poomer, near the fortunate, porpunate, tamppoo, all around the fourth of martz. Oh, I get all confused. Pulvermüller’s hypothesis:  Pulvermüller’s hypothesis Friedemann Pulvermüller, The Neuroscience of Language, 2002 Phonological representation: a distributed representation in the perisylvian area, but without different local functions for different parts of the representation Naïve and sophisticated localization:  Naïve and sophisticated localization Naïve Each local center does a fairly large job, all by itself Classic example of a really bad one: Gall’s phrenology Sophisticated Each local center does a small job Large jobs are done by operation of several or many such local centers working together, partly in serial, partly in parallel – distributed processing Typically, such a local center can participate in several different kinds of larger jobs, depending on what other centers are working together with it Lessons from Carl Wernicke:  Lessons from Carl Wernicke Carl Wernicke: Primary functions alone can be referred to specific areas…. All processes which exceed these primary functions…are dependent on the fiber bundles, that is, association. Aphasia Symptom Complex (1874) Any higher psychic processes exceeding these primary assumptions cannot be localized but rest on the mutual interaction of these fundamental psychic elements which mediate their manifold relations by means of the association fibers. Recent Works on Aphasia (1885-86) Wernicke and Connectionism:  Wernicke and Connectionism Kandel, Schwarz, and Jessel: “…Wernicke proposed (1876) that only the most basic mental functions, those concerned with simple perceptual and motor activities, are localized to single areas of the cortex, and that more complex intellectual functions result from interconnections between several functional sites. In placing the principle of localized function within a connectionist framework, Wernicke appreciated that different components of a single behavior are processed in different regions of the brain. He thus advanced the first evidence for the idea of distributed processing, which is now central to our understanding of brain function.” Essentials of Neural Science and Behavior (1995:13) Basic functions and complex functions:  Basic functions and complex functions Phonological recognition is a basic function It is located in Wernicke’s area Speaking is a complex function It is a cooperative effort of several areas, including Broca’s area and Wernicke’s area Phonological recognition is a necessary component of speaking Wernicke’s Area and Speaking:  Wernicke’s Area and Speaking Phonological images guide speech production Phonological recognition monitors production Compare.. Painting without visual perception Playing a piano without auditory perception Conclusion: Of course phonological recognition (i.e. Wernicke’s area) plays a role in speech production Pulvermüller’s Statement:  Pulvermüller’s Statement …patients with Wernicke’s aphasia have difficulty speaking…. These deficits are typical…and cannot be easily explained by assuming a selective lesion to a center devoted to language comprehension. The Neuroscience of Language (2002) Paraphrasing Pulvermüller:  Paraphrasing Pulvermüller Altered quote: …patients with damage to the occipital lobe have difficulty drawing pictures…. These deficits are typical…and cannot be easily explained by assuming a selective lesion to a center devoted to visual perception. …patients with Wernicke’s aphasia have difficulty speaking…. These deficits are typical…and cannot be easily explained by assuming a selective lesion to a center devoted to language comprehension. The Neuroscience of Language (2002) Pinker momentarily gets it, then backs off:  Pinker momentarily gets it, then backs off Wernicke’s area … was once thought to underlie language comprehension. But that would not explain why the speech of these patients sounds so psychotic. Wernicke’s area seems to have a role in looking up words and funneling them to other areas, notably Broca’s, that assemble or parse them syntactically. Wernicke’s aphasia, perhaps, is the product of an intact Broca’s area madly churning out phrases without the intended message and intended words that Wernicke’s area ordinarily supplies. But to be honest, no one really knows what either Broca’s area or Wernicke’s area is for. The Language Instinct (1994: 311) Pinker momentarily gets it, then backs off:  Pinker momentarily gets it, then backs off Wernicke’s area … was once thought to underlie language comprehension. But that would not explain why the speech of these patients sounds so psychotic. Wernicke’s area seems to have a role in looking up words and funneling them to other areas, notably Broca’s, that assemble or parse them syntactically. Wernicke’s aphasia, perhaps, is the product of an intact Broca’s area madly churning out phrases without the intended message and intended words that Wernicke’s area ordinarily supplies. But to be honest, no one really knows what either Broca’s area or Wernicke’s area is for. The Language Instinct (1994: 311) Similarly, Blumstein (1995:923) (passage quoted above):  Similarly, Blumstein (1995:923) (passage quoted above) “… both anterior and posterior structures ultimately contribute to the speech production process. “The nature of the posterior mechanism contributing to articulatory implementation is not clear. …. …the auditory feedback system normally contributing to the control of the articulatory parameters of speech may be impaired. More research is required to determine the nature of the mechanisms involved, but what is clear is that the traditional dichotomy between production, subserved by anterior brain structures, and perception, subserved solely by posterior structures, is not supported.” Agrammatism:  Agrammatism Usually associated with Broca aphasia Generally present in Broca’s aphasia But other aphasics also have grammatical dysfunctions Paragrammatism – common in Wernicke aphasia A lot of variation among different patients Slide24:  end

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