Lin Nutrition Labeling Related Consumer

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Published on December 3, 2008

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Nutrition Labeling Related Consumer Researchat FDA : Nutrition Labeling Related Consumer Researchat FDA Chung-Tung Jordan Lin Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition U.S. Food and Drug Administration April 17-18, 2008 Food Safety, Nutrition, and Health: A Transatlantic Partnership Presidential Conference Center, Texas A&M University The views expressed in this presentation are those of the author and do not necessarily represent the views of the U.S. FDA Outline : 2 Outline FDA and Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN) Nutrition labeling as a public health intervention Consumer research at FDA/CFSAN Research observations related to nutrition labeling Summary and conclusions CFSAN/FDA Mission : 3 CFSAN/FDA Mission 25 cents of every dollar that US consumers spend are on products regulated by FDA; 75 % of the amount is on foods Mission of Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition ─ “promoting and protecting the public’s health by ensuring that the nation’s food supply is safe, sanitary, wholesome, and honestly labeled, and that cosmetic products are safe and properly labeled” Public Health: Interventions In Use or Mentioned : 4 Public Health: Interventions In Use or Mentioned Information (contents, access) affects food preferences food access and availability food nutritional attributes Education Food prices (taxes, subsidies), access, availability Environment Health care Individual costs (insurance, incentives) Nutrition Labeling : 5 Nutrition Labeling General principle: truthful and not misleading Health Messages (often on the front panel) : 6 Health Messages (often on the front panel) Health claim authorized claim “SSA – significant scientific agreement” standard notification based on authoritative statement of a scientific body qualified health claim (a claim NOT meeting the SSA standard) Nutrient content claim the level of a nutrient in a food Structure/function claim how a nutrient affects or maintains normal body functions or structure Dietary guidance statement Other Health Messages (often on the front panel) : 7 Other Health Messages (often on the front panel) Major FDA Initiatives Since the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990 : 8 Major FDA Initiatives Since the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990 2002 Consumer Health Information for Better Nutrition Initiative qualified health claims dietary guidance statements 2003 Obesity Working Group prominence of calories serving size 2006 trans fat declaration, functional foods 2007 nutrient declaration, %DV listing 2007 sodium, front-of-pack symbols What can Consumer Research Bring to Policy? : 9 What can Consumer Research Bring to Policy? CFSAN policies and educational activities protect and promote public health from consumption of regulated products Consumer communication – an important tool to achieve the goal by providing information to aid informed decisions Consumer research – helps enhance the design and effectiveness of policies and education activities by examining whether and how labeling and other information is read, understood and reacted by intended target audience, the consumer Types of Consumer Research at FDA : 10 Types of Consumer Research at FDA Qualitative – to explore and to confirm focus groups mental models Quantitative – to establish causality, associations, prevalence experimental studies (Web, in-person) surveys (telephone, Web) How Labels May Help Promote the Public Health? : 11 How Labels May Help Promote the Public Health? Nutrition labels Consumers information, decision aids, confidence, education Producers product attributes, availability Better diet and health Slide 12: 12 Multiple Factors Associated with Obesity and Overweight Obesity and overweight genetics physical activity diet other (e.g., pathogens, image of overweight) at-home away-from-home product availability food insufficiency culture, tradition taste, habit costs other food labels product availability food insufficiency culture, tradition taste, habit costs other portion size food labels (but absent for most items) nutrition profiles nutrition profile Lifestyle behavior Nutrition Competes with Other Consumer Interests : 13 Nutrition Competes with Other Consumer Interests Taste / enjoyment (reward) Time / convenience Cost / value Habit / familiarity Brand Safety Environment Social status Food Labels Compete with Other Nutrition Information : 14 Food Labels Compete with Other Nutrition Information Promotion, advertising Family, friends, acquaintance Cultural background Mass media Personal experience and “self-diagnosis” Nutrition Information Competes with Other Information on the Label : 15 Nutrition Information Competes with Other Information on the Label Principal Display Panel health/nutrition statements/graphics other quality claims/graphics process and environmental statements/graphics graphics, background Back Panel Nutrition Facts label – between nutrients too list of ingredients graphics, background Observations about Food Label Use : 16 Observations about Food Label Use Want more information, but feel overwhelmed Often focus on a few nutrients ― fat and calories Health messages on the front capture attention as a short-cut not necessarily trusted, but deemed useful may cause erroneous perceptions or over-consumption disclosures or disclaimers not necessarily useful More Observations about Food Label Use : 17 More Observations about Food Label Use Use of fat information is positively associated with confidence in using labels to choose a healthy diet perceived advantage of using labels rather than relying on own knowledge perceived time cost perceived importance of nutrition in food shopping perceived importance of a healthy/low fat diet general fat knowledge Use of fat information is negatively associated with % calories from fat Other research suggests label use is related to healthier diet How Frequently did Consumers Read Food Labels at First Purchase of a Product? : 18 How Frequently did Consumers Read Food Labels at First Purchase of a Product? How Labels were Used for Informational and Planning Purposes? : 19 How Labels were Used for Informational and Planning Purposes? To plan meals To find out nutrient amounts * To get a general idea of a food * To decide how much to eat % of label readers who often used label How Labels Were Used for Product Selection and Other Purposes? : 20 How Labels Were Used for Product Selection and Other Purposes? To avoid certain ingredients To verify advertising * To compare brands/foods * % of label readers who often used label Most Consumers Have Heard of These Fats : 21 Most Consumers Have Heard of These Fats % who have heard of a fat More Know Sat Fat ─ Heart Risk Linkage Than Trans or Omega 3 ─ Heart Risk Linkage : 22 More Know Sat Fat ─ Heart Risk Linkage Than Trans or Omega 3 ─ Heart Risk Linkage 1 Many Consumers Have Heard of These Fats : 23 Many Consumers Have Heard of These Fats % who have heard of a fat Many of Them, however, Cannot Tell the Links Between These Fats and Risk of Heart Disease : 24 Many of Them, however, Cannot Tell the Links Between These Fats and Risk of Heart Disease Likelihood That the Product Would Help Reduce the Risk of a (Disease) : 25 Likelihood That the Product Would Help Reduce the Risk of a (Disease) Very likely Very unlikely Mean rating Type of claim Likelihood to Consider Buying the Product : 26 Likelihood to Consider Buying the Product Very likely Very unlikely Mean rating Type of claim Summary and Conclusions : 27 Summary and Conclusions Nutrition labeling can be a useful intervention to promote public health Yet, its effects are subject to competing forces Efforts to enhance the usefulness of nutrition labeling are a continuing process Consumer research provides valuable inputs Summary and Conclusions : 28 Summary and Conclusions Ideas for future research subjective factors in label use and dietary behavior multi-disciplinary approach (e.g., behavioral economics) labeling of away-from-home foods longitudinal research tracking label use, diets, health outcomes and exploring causality relationships use of market data to investigate labeling effects on sales and product mixes meta-analysis of existing research

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