Limitation under Criminal Procedure Code

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Information about Limitation under Criminal Procedure Code

Published on October 29, 2018

Author: shubhamsoni8

Source: slideshare.net

1. BY: SHUBHAM SONI CHAPTER XXXVI LIMITATION FOR TAKING COGNIZANCE OF CERTAIN OFFENCES. LIMITATION UNDER  CRIMINAL PROCEDURE LITIGATION ADVOCACY | MARCH 2018

2. NIRMA UNIVERSITY CONTENTS I N T R O D U C T I O N L I M I T A T I O N F O R T A K I N G C O G N I Z A N C E O F C E R T A I N O F F E N C E S [ 4 6 7 - 4 7 3 ] J U D I C I A L A N A L Y S I S C O N C L U S I O N MARCH 2018

3. NIRMA UNIVERSITY MARCH 2018 INTRODUCTION R A T I O N A L E Testimony of witnesses becomes weaker with the lapse of time and memory and consequently the chances of errors in judgments increase, since the evidence becomes weaker.  Put pressure on the system of the criminal prosecution to ensure that the offender is convicted and punished quickly to ensure speedy justice.  In consonance with the concept of fairness of trial, as enshrined in Article 21 of the Constitution of India.

4. NIRMA UNIVERSITY MARCH 2018 INTRODUCTION O V E R V I E W O F P R O V I S I O N S Section 467  of Cr.P.C defines the phrase ‘period of limitation’ to mean the period specified in  Section  468  for taking cognizance of certain offences. 

5. NIRMA UNIVERSITY MARCH 2018 INTRODUCTION O V E R V I E W O F P R O V I S I O N S Section 468 stipulates the bar of limitation. Sub-section (1)  of  Section 468 makes it clear that a fetter is put on the court’s power to take cognizance of an offence of the category mentioned in sub-section  (2)  after the expiry of a period of Sub section (2) lays down the period of limitation for certain offences.

6. NIRMA UNIVERSITY MARCH 2018 INTRODUCTION O V E R V I E W O F P R O V I S I O N S Section 469 states when the period of limitation commences. It is dexterously drafted so as to prevent advantage of bar of limitation being  taken by the accused. It states that period of limitation in relation to an offence shall commence either from the date of offence or from the date when the offence is detected.

7. NIRMA UNIVERSITY MARCH 2018 INTRODUCTION O V E R V I E W O F P R O V I S I O N S Section 470 provides for exclusion of time in certain cases.  It inter alia states that while computing the period of limitation in relation to an offence, time taken during which the case was being diligently prosecuted in another court or  in appeal  or in revision  against  the  offender, should  be excluded. The explanation to this section states that in computing limitation, the time required for   obtaining the consent or sanction of the government or any other authority should be excluded. Similarly time during which the accused is absconding or is absent  from India  shall  also  be excluded.

8. NIRMA UNIVERSITY MARCH 2018 INTRODUCTION O V E R V I E W O F P R O V I S I O N S Section 471 provides for the exclusion of date on which court is closed and Section  472 provides for continuing offence. Section 473 is an overriding  provision which enables  courts to condone delay where  such delay has been properly explained or  where the interest of justice demands extension of period of limitation.

9. NIRMA UNIVERSITY MARCH 2018 CASE STUDY I M R S . S A R A H M A T H E W V S T H E I N S T I T U T E O F C A R D I O V A S C U L A R D I S E A S E S [ C R I M I N A L A P P E A L 8 2 9 / 2 0 0 5 ] H e l d t h a t f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f c o m p u t i n g t h e p e r i o d o f l i m i t a t i o n i n C r i m i n a l C a s e s t h e r e l e v a n t d a t e i s t h e d a t e o f f i l i n g o f t h e c o m p l a i n t o r t h e d a t e o f i n s t i t u t i o n o f p r o s e c u t i o n a n d n o t t h e d a t e o n w h i c h t h e M a g i s t r a t e t a k e s c o g n i z a n c e . R e s o l v e d K r i s h n a P i l l a i   v s B h a r a t K a l e ( w h i c h   i s f o l l o w e d i n   J a p a n i S a h o o ) l a y s d o w n t h e c o r r e c t l a w ? I s s u e : W h e t h e r f o r   t h e p u r p o s e s o f   c o m p u t i n g   t h e p e r i o d o f   l i m i t a t i o n u n d e r S e c t i o n 4 6 8 o f   t h e C r . P . C t h e r e l e v a n t d a t e i s t h e d a t e o f f i l i n g o f t h e c o m p l a i n t o r t h e d a t e   o f   i n s t i t u t i o n   o f p r o s e c u t i o n o r   w h e t h e r t h e r e l e v a n t   d a t e i s t h e d a t e o n w h i c h a M a g i s t r a t e t a k e s c o g n i z a n c e o f t h e o f f e n c e ?

10. NIRMA UNIVERSITY MARCH 2018 CHAPTER XXXVI According to Section 468, if an offence is punishable with fine only, the period of limitation shall be six months and if the offence is punishable with imprisonment for a term that does not exceed one year, the period of limitation is one year.  Section 468, further makes it clear that if the offence is punishable with imprisonment for a term exceeding one year but not exceeding three years, the period of limitation shall be three years. 

11. NIRMA UNIVERSITY MARCH 2018 CHAPTER XXXVI Does not lay down the period of limitation for offences punishable with imprisonment exceeding three years. Meaning thereby there is no outer limit qua the limitation in relation to the offences having punishment for three years or more.  Thus, Section 473 of the Code of Criminal Procedure enables the Court to take cognizance of an offence after the expiry of the period of limitation, if it is satisfied on the facts and in the circumstances of the case that the delay has been properly explained.

12. NIRMA UNIVERSITY MARCH 2018 CASE STUDY II C R I M E N E V E R D I E S I n A s s t . C u s t o m s C o l l e c t o r , B o m b a y v . L . R . M e l w a n i , A I R ( 1 9 7 0 ) S C 9 6 2 , 9 6 5 , t h e S u p r e m e C o u r t h e l d t h a t : " T h e q u e s t i o n o f d e l a y i n f i l i n g a c o m p l a i n t m a y b e a c i r c u m s t a n c e t o b e t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n a r r i v i n g a t t h e f i n a l v e r d i c t . B u t b y i t s e l f i t a f f o r d s n o g r o u n d f o r d i s m i s s i n g t h e c o m p l i a n t " .

13. NIRMA UNIVERSITY MARCH 2018 CASE STUDY III C R I M E N E V E R D I E S I n A s s t . C u s t o m s C o l l e c t o r , B o m b a y v . L . R . M e l w a n i , A I R ( 1 9 7 0 ) S C 9 6 2 , 9 6 5 , t h e S u p r e m e C o u r t h e l d t h a t : " T h e q u e s t i o n o f d e l a y i n f i l i n g a c o m p l a i n t m a y b e a c i r c u m s t a n c e t o b e t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n a r r i v i n g a t t h e f i n a l v e r d i c t . B u t b y i t s e l f i t a f f o r d s n o g r o u n d f o r d i s m i s s i n g t h e c o m p l i a n t " .

14. NIRMA UNIVERSITY MARCH 2018 CASE STUDY IV B H A G I R A T H K A N O R I A A N D O T H E R S – V S - S T A T E O F M . P . , A I R 1 9 8 4 S . C . 1 6 8 8 T h e p r i n c i p a l q u e s t i o n i n t h e d e c i s i o n w a s r e g a r d i n g c o n t i n u i n g o f f e n c e s p o k e n a b o u t i n S e c t i o n 4 7 2 b u t t h e S u p r e m e C o u r t a l s o d r e w p o i n t e d a t t e n t i o n o f t h e C o u r t s t o t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f S e c t i o n 4 7 3 o f t h e C o d e .   “ T h e q u e s t i o n w h e t h e r a p a r t i c u l a r o f f e n c e i s a c o n t i n u i n g o f f e n c e m u s t n e c e s s a r i l y d e p e n d u p o n t h e l a n g u a g e o f t h e s t a t u t e w h i c h c r e a t e s t h a t o f f e n c e , t h e n a t u r e o f t h e o f f e n c e a n d , a b o v e a l l , t h e p u r p o s e w h i c h i s i n t e n d e d t o b e a c h i e v e d b y c o n s t i t u t i n g t h e p a r t i c u l a r a c t a s a n o f f e n c e . "

15. NIRMA UNIVERSITY MARCH 2018 CASE STUDY IV B H A G I R A T H K A N O R I A A N D O T H E R S – V S - S T A T E O F M . P . , A I R 1 9 8 4 S . C . 1 6 8 8 I n p a r a 2 2 o f t h e J u d g m e n t i t w a s h e l d t h a t S e c t i o n 4 7 3 o f t h e C o d e e n a c t s a n o v e r r i d i n g p r o v i s i o n a n d c o u r t s   c o n f r o n t e d w i t h p r o v i s i o n l a y i n g d o w n a r u l e o f l i m i t a t i o n g o v e r n i n g p r o s e c u t i o n w i l l g i v e d u e w e i g h t a n d c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o p r o v i s i o n s o f S e c t i o n 4 7 3 a n d t a k e c o g n i z a n c e e v e n a f t e r e x p i r y o f l i m i t a t i o n i f i n t e r e s t o f j u s t i c e s o r e q u i r e s .

16. NIRMA UNIVERSITY MARCH 2018 CASE STUDY IV V A N K A R A D H A M A N O H A R I ( S M T ) – V S - V A N K A V E N K A T A R E D D Y A N D O T H E R S , ( 1 9 9 3 ) 3 S C C 4 D E C I D E D O N T H E 2 0 T H A P R I L 1 9 9 3   T h e H i g h C o u r t d i d n o t n o t i c e t h a t f o r o f f e n c e u n d e r S e c t i o n 4 9 4 I . P . C . p u n i s h a b l e w i t h i m p r i s o n m e n t u p t o s e v e n y e a r s n o b a r o f l i m i t a t i o n i s a p p l i c a b l e .   T h e S u p r e m e C o u r t r e f e r r e d t o S A R W A N S I N G H a n d B H A G I R A T H K A N O R I A a n d h e l d t h a t t h e H i g h C o u r t s h o u l d h a v e c o n s i d e r e d t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f S e c t i o n 4 7 3 o f t h e C o d e , s p e c i a l l y i n a c a s e o f c r u e l t y a g a i n s t w o m e n .   T h e S u p r e m e C o u r t a p p l i e d S e c t i o n 4 7 3 a n d c o n d o n e d t h e d e l a y . T h e o r d e r o f t h e M a g i s t r a t e w a s r e s t o r e d .

17. NIRMA UNIVERSITY MARCH 2018 THANK YOU F O R Y O U R P A T I E N C E ! A N Y Q U E S T I O N S ?  

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