Light Field Technology

0 %
100 %
Information about Light Field Technology
Business

Published on April 24, 2014

Author: Funk98

Source: slideshare.net

Description

These slides use concepts from my (Jeff Funk) course entitled analyzing hi-tech opportunities to analyze how Light Field Technology is becoming economic feasible for an increasing number of applications. Light Field Cameras record all of the light fields in a picture instead of just one light field. This capability enables users to change the focus of pictures after they have been taken and to more easily record 3D data. These features are becoming economically feasible improvements because of rapid improvements in camera chips and micro-lens arrays (an example of micro-electronic mechanical systems, MEMS). These features offer alternative ways to do 3D sensing for automated vehicles and augmented reality and can enable faster data collection with telescopes.

Light Field Technology Chen Zhao, Chen Zhi, John Allen Ray, Ung Guan Wah, Zhou Xintao For information on other technologies, please see Jeff Funk’s slide share account (http://www.slideshare.net/Funk98/presentations) or his book with Chris Magee: Exponential Change: What drives it? What does it tell us about the future? http://www.amazon.com/Exponential-Change-drives-about-future- ebook/dp/B00HPSAYEM/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1398325920&sr=8-1&keywords=exponential+change

What is light field technology? • Light goes through the main lens and then hit a special lens • The special lens incorporates a compound lens known as a micro-lens array (MLA) • MLA re-group sensors (e.g. CCD, CMOS) into small groups • Capture information on the direction, color, and luminosity of millions of individual rays of light • Computationally reconstruct the light field (3D) • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7babcK2GH3I Lytro camera Generalized conceptual diagram of light field camera

Driving Force Refocusing pictures Optical correction 3D scanning, modeling Price drop on image sensor and MLA

Timeline of Light Field Camera (LFC) 1992 Plenoptic camera proposed in research 2006 Refocus Imaging (later Lytro) 2008 Foundation of Raytrix 2010 R11 first commercialized LF camera, 30,000 euros, 3 megapixels 2011 Lytro launched, first consumer LFC, 499USD. 1.1 megapixels 2014 Jan, Toshiba started sample shipment of Dual camera module with depth data, 50 USD, 13 megapixels 2015 first half, Pelican Imaging shipment planned.

Rates of Improvement (LFC) 1 10 100 1000 10000 100000 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 ProductioncostperMegapixels(USD) R11 Lytro Toshiba Pelican 0 100000 200000 300000 400000 500000 600000 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Totalnumberofmicrolenses R11 Lytro Toshiba Year Model Cost (USD) Megapixel Pixel Size (um) Microlenses Lense size (um) 2010 R11 39,000 3 9 40,000 200 2011 Lytro 499 1 1.4 130,000 13.89 2014 Toshiba 50 13 1.4 500,000 30 ? Pelican 20 8 ? ? ?

T. Suzuki, “Challenges of Image-Sensor Development”, ISSCC, 2010 http://www.future-fab.com/documents.asp?d_ID=4926 Changes in Scale Impacted on Cost per pixel of Camera Chips

Microlens Array (MLA) Modern fabrication methods: • Photolithography based on standard semiconductor processing technology • Feature size less than 1mm and often as small as 10 um Other applications: • Coupling light to optical fibres • Increase light collection efficiency of CCD arrays • Focus light in digital projectors • Concentrators for high efficiency photovoltaics

Applications Cameras 3D Sensing Augment RealityTelescope/Microscope Autonomous vehicles

Mobile Software Refocus 2014 is becoming the year of mobile software refocus Nokia Lumia https://refocus.nokia.com/ Sony XperiaTM Z2 (waterproof) Samsung Galaxy S5 LG G Pro 2 Meizu MX3

Cameras - Reduction in size Toshiba • 18.0 mm x 12.0 mm x 4.65 mm • Dual camera module • 13 Megapixels • CMOS Light Field sensor • 500,000 microlenses (5X more than Lytro) • Module shipped in Jan 2014 • Sample US$50

Cameras - Reduction in size Pelican Imaging • Developed extremely thin, and cheap light field camera module • Height 3mm • Array of small cameras • Production cost US$20 • 8 Megapixels output • Future Nokia Lumia confirmed with this feature http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= Nleclfgqn_U

Applications Cameras 3D Sensing Augment RealityTelescope/Microscope Autonomous vehicles

A light-field picture contains more information about depth than simply correspondence which allow us to capture the real world in unparalleled detail (4D). Rendering complexity is independent of scene complexity. Processing speed is fast No need to worry about the focus of the scanner lenses. Why light field for 3D sensing is better

1. Stereoscopic vision: Currently most common 3D sensor approach Passive range determination via stereoscopic vision utilizes the disparity in viewpoints between a pair of near-identical cameras to measure the distance to a subject of interest. 3D sensing Technology

2. Structured light: Replaces the stereoscopic vision sensor's second imaging sensor with a projection component. Similar to stereoscopic vision techniques, this approach takes advantage of the known camera-to-projector separation to locate a specific point between them and compute the depth with triangulation algorithms. 3D sensing Technology

3. Time of flight An indirect system to obtain travel time information by measuring the delay or phase shift of a modulated optical signal for all pixels in the scene. The ToF sensor in the system consists of an array of pixels, where each pixel is capable of determining the distance to the scene. 3D sensing Technology

Stereoscopic vision Structured light Time of flight(TOF) Light Field Software complexity High High Low Low Material Cost Low High/Middle Middle Low Response time Middle Slow Fast Fast Low light Weak Light source dep (IR or visible) Good (IR, laser) Good Outdoor Good Weak Fair Good Depth (“z”) accuracy cm μm ~ cm mm ~ cm μm ~ cm Range Mid range Very short range(cm) to mid range (4- 6m) Short range(<1m) to long range(~40m) Very short range(cm) to long rang (~100m) Application Device control 3D movie 3D scanning

3D-vision gesture control system, which is a highly precise and reliable user interface for interacting with any display screen from any distance. Whether on a personal computer, set top box, television set, mobile device, game console, digital sign or interactive kiosk, The depth tracking software enables users to control onscreen interaction with simple hand motions instead of a remote control, keyboard or touch screen. 3D sensing control

3D Dental Scanner

3D scanning for arch

Interactive Billboard Interactive mirror Future Retail Industry

Mechanical Parts Scanning For Lockheed Martin, 3D scanner assures the right fit the first time Car scanning

Applications Cameras 3D Sensing Augment Reality Telescope/Microscope Autonomous vehicles

Is this real? Created from Light field AR Created from Hologram

http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=p layer_embedded&v=pky822zG4hM • Without the benefit of clear natural sight, such advances light field in AR are extraordinarily helpful • Ability to see more - inside of a patient (Diagnosis and Therapy) • Limited – type of displays are cumbersome • New equipment such as transparent screens - Displaying information and graphics about the person's condition, - combination of visualization and location tracking technology, • Medical AR technology compared with light field, ultrasound and location technology

AR using Light Field 3D MOULD • More details • Bring it every where you can

AR Tool kit (VRML) vs. Rendering Light field Reference: https://www.academia.edu/5470506/AN_AUGMENTED_REALITY_SYSTEM_BASED_ON_LIGHT_FIELDS

AR Tool kit (VRML) vs. Rendering Light field Detail Processing • Constant Response • Shorter Response Reference: https://www.academia.edu/5470506/AN_AUGMENTED_REALITY_SYSTEM_BASED_ON_LIGHT_FIELDS

Higher processing requirement Traditional ARNearing peak of inflated expectation Break away from Monitor & display Level 0 - Physical World Hyper Linkin Level 1 - Marker Based AR Level 2 - Markerless AR Level 3 - Augmented Vision http://www.sprxmobile.com/the-augmented-reality-hype-cycle/

Distribution of AR Application on mobile • Increase demand in mobile device application • Install with Light Field Camera for fast response • “Shot and Focus” later http://www.augmentedplanet.com/2010/06/the-mobile-augmented-reality-competitive-landscape/

Representation Hologram Vs Light Field a) Depicts the representation of a hologram. b) and c) show two different representations of a light field. Reference: Eurographics 2007/D.Cohen-Or and P.Slavik, A Bidirectional Light Field-Hologram Transform Volume 26 (2007), Number 3

Light Field Mapping • The possibility to transform a light field into a holographic representation and vice versa. • The holographic data representation is similar to a light field • “M” transforms the light field into a holographic representation. • Method to extract depth from the input light field. • If accurate depth information is available for the light field it can optionally be added to the input Reference: Eurographics 2007/D.Cohen-Or and P.Slavik, A Bidirectional Light Field-Hologram Transform Volume 26 (2007), Number 3

Light Field Mapping • Depth Reconstruction from Light Fields • Effects of Loss of Data from Hologram Reference: Eurographics 2007/D.Cohen-Or and P.Slavik, A Bidirectional Light Field-Hologram Transform Volume 26 (2007), Number 3

Hologram Vs Light Field Reference: Eurographics 2007/D.Cohen-Or and P.Slavik, A Bidirectional Light Field-Hologram Transform Volume 26 (2007), Number 3

Hologram Vs Light Field • Hologram - an illustration of direct output of holographic content on future generation holographic displays. • Light field - far more efficient for conventional 2D frame buffer displays. • Light Field - the versatility and the power of transformation on synthetic light fields, real light fields and digitally recorded holograms. • The rendered images can be evaluated directly from the holographic representation or through light field rendering. • Light field capable of simulating different aperture sizes as well as focal length – Versatile displays Future • Holograms can be captured using a light field camera • Take advantage of the realism and detail preserving benefits of a real light field while giving the possibility of a 3D output on a holographic screen

AR Light Field Possible Improvements • See-through displays • New tracking sensors • Interfaces and Interactions

Applications Cameras 3D Sensing Augment Reality Telescope/M icroscope Autonomous vehicles

Scientific Applications Light-Field Telescope Light-Field Microscope

Light-Field Telescope Source: JonathanWedd, Jan van der Laan, Eric Lavelle, and David Stoker. “A High-Magnification Light-Field Telescope forExtended Depth-of-Field Biometric Imaging”

Light-Field Telescope  Take the image faster and refocus the image after taking  Increase magnification  Achieve large depth of field and high lateral image resolution simultaneously  Capture different wavelengths

Light Field Microscope  A compact Light Field Microscope Designed by Stanford  Consists of an ordinary research microscope and cooled scientific camera  A microlens array is inserted Source: Marc Levoy, Ren Ng, Andrew Adams, Matthew Footer, Mark Horowitz. “Light Field Microscopy”. Stanford University

Light Field Microscope Source: Marc Levoy, Ren Ng, Andrew Adams, Matthew Footer, Mark Horowitz. “Light Field Microscopy”. Stanford University

Light Field Microscope  Captures light fields of biological specimens in a single snapshot  Offers 3D functional imaging of neuronal activity in entire organisms at single cell level  Separates image acquisition from the selection of viewpoint and focus  Captures video of high speed moving specimens

Applications Cameras 3D Sensing Augment RealityTelescope/Microscope Autonomous vehicles

Autonomous Vehicle Applications Consumer Passenger Vehicles Agricultural Vehicles Military Combat Vehicles Logistics/Supplies Search & Rescue Vehicles M.Bellone, et al, “Unevenness Point Descriptor for Terrain Analysis in Mobile Robot Applications”, 2012 http://cdn.intechopen.com/pdfs-wm/45459.pdf

LFC Vs. Laser Based Systems Advantages: Easier data interpretation Significantly Lower Cost Lower Power Requirement Comparable performance Disadvantages: Smaller field of view (multiple cameras required) D. Stavens, “LEARNING TO DRIVE: PERCEPTION FOR AUTONOMOUS CARS”, 2011 http://purl.stanford.edu/pb661px9942

Light Field Depth Map M.Tao, et al, “Depth from Combining Defocus and Correspondence Using Light-Field Cameras”, 2013 http://www.cs.berkeley.edu/~ravir/lightfield_ICCV.pdf

Light Field Terrain Analysis M.Bellone, et al, “Unevenness Point Descriptor for Terrain Analysis in Mobile Robot Applications”, 2012 http://cdn.intechopen.com/pdfs-wm/45459.pdf

Light Field Terrain Analysis M.Bellone, et al, “Unevenness Point Descriptor for Terrain Analysis in Mobile Robot Applications”, 2012 http://cdn.intechopen.com/pdfs-wm/45459.pdf

Future of Light Field We have analyzed advantages of LF We showed applications of LF in cameras, mobile phones, 3D scanning, AR, scientific research, and autonomous vehicles Future applications of LF will enable us to do more simple and fast 3D applications

Add a comment

Related presentations

Boat chandlery

Boat chandlery

October 26, 2014

http://ecommerce-for-business.com/shackles-boats-theboatonlinestore/ We offer a ...

http://vendere-su-internet.com/shackles-for-boats-from-theboatonlinestore/ Moori...

Silver bar!

Silver bar!

October 21, 2014

Pretty similar to gold bars are these silver slabs. Silver is considered as the mo...

Gold coin prices!

Gold coin prices!

October 21, 2014

If you are an investor of gold bars and coins, one of the major things that you ou...

CyberSecurity's social media stats for one week as of Oct 21st 2014

CyberSecurity's social media stats for one week as of Oct 28th 2014

Related pages

3D light field technology | Raytrix

Our 3D light field technology enable you to simultaneously record the 2D image and metrically calibrated 3D depth information of a scene.
Read more

Light field - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The light field is a ... A downward-facing light source (F-F') induces a light field whose ... By presenting a light field using technology that ...
Read more

Lytro - Home

LYTRO CINEMA. The first professional Light Field solution for cinema, providing unparalleled creative freedom and flexibility on set and in post-production.
Read more

Light-field camera - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A light field camera, also known as plenoptic camera, captures information about the light field emanating from a scene; that is, the intensity of light in ...
Read more

Raytrix | 3D light field camera technology

The Raytrix Light Field Technology provides 3D capture and high resolution with different one shot cameras. 3D camera | Light field camera
Read more

Technology: The Lightfield Foundation

Lightfield Technology ™ ... of an additional class of a non-physical field in physics ... from music and light inputs and ...
Read more

OTOY • Light Fields

What is a Light Field? ... not been commercially viable until OTOY’s light field GPU technology made it tractable through OTOY’s ...
Read more

Lytro - Imaging

CAREERS. At Lytro we are leveraging our patented Light Field technology to create breakthrough solutions for cinematography, virtual reality, and science ...
Read more

» The Secrets of Light Field Technology 2016 - Shanta Gabriel

Light Field Technology ™ is a powerful system inspired by Archangel Gabriel that teaches you to thrive in the new frequencies of 5D energy. It will ...
Read more

Light Field Rendering - Stanford University

The light field, first described in Arun Gershun's classic 1936 paper of the same name, is defined as radiance as a function of position and direction in ...
Read more