Lifespan Chapter 4 Online Stud

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Information about Lifespan Chapter 4 Online Stud

Published on February 19, 2008

Author: Mossler


Chapter 4Social and Personality Development in Infancy

Forming the Roots of Sociability: Emotions in Infancy  Across every culture, infants show similar facial expressions relating to basic emotions.  Influenced by bio AND exp.  E.g., rules of display are culturally influenced  Temperament

Emergence of Emotional Expressions: first expression of relationships • Enables coordinated interactions w/caregivers • Reciprocal changes in expression The “self-conscious” emotions (jealousy, empathy, embarrassment, pride, shame, and guilt) appear later

Emergence of Emotional Expressions: first expression of relationshipsCrying: at least three types: basic cry anger cry pain cry stimulated by physical pain or high-intensity stimulus

Emergence of Emotional Expressions: first expression of relationshipsSmiling: 2 types: Reflexive Social 4 months

Separation Anxiety (Protest)Begins ~ 8 or 9 months; peaks ~14months. (Slightly later than strangeranxiety.)Both stranger & separation anxietyrepresent important social progress!They reflect cognitive advances inthe infant, and growing emotionaland social bonds.

Separation Anxiety (Protest)A universal (but slightly varying) phenomenon

Social Referencing: Feeling What Others Feel Social Referencing>reading emotional cues to help determine how to act; esp facial expressions  First occurs ~8-9 months.  Most likely >uncertain and ambiguous situations.  If Dad and Mom show conflicting emotions?[next]

Temperament Chess and Thomas’ Easy - 40% Difficult - 10% Slow-to-warm-up - 15% 35% cannot be consistently categorized Kagan’s Behavioral Inhibition/socially bold Effortful Control > high control = self- soothing; low control = easily agitated Biological foundations and experience

The Consequences of Temperament: Does Temperament Matter?GOODNESS OF FIT: Development is dependent on the degree of match between childrens temperament and the nature and demands of the environment in which they are being raised.= affect on LT dev’t

Infant Personality DevelopmentPersonality - enduring personal characteristics Includes emotions and temperamentErikson: Early Py is shaped largely by an infant’s personal experiences [next]

Stages/Crises First year of life; Trust Age 2: Independence “autonomy versus shame and doubt” when caregivers are impatient and do for toddlers what they are capable of doing themselves, shame and doubt develop

The Development of Self SELF-AWARENESS, knowledge of self, begins to grow ~12 months.  mirror and rouge task.  Most infants attempt to wipe off the rouge b/t 17-24 months. Ability to assess own physical features emerges in 2nd year. Crying, when presented with complicated tasks, implies consciousness. [next]

AttachmentKonrad Lorenz Imprinting Harry Harlow and one of his monkeys [next]


Attachment John Bowlby> attachment has a biological basis Ainsworth Strange Situation: illustrates the strength of attachment between a child and (typically) his or her mother [next]

Individual Differences in Attachment Responses the Strange Situation securely attached insecure avoidant insecure resistant insecure disorganized

Individual Differences in Attachment

Attachment: The Roles of Mother & Father When stressed, infants tend to prefer their mothers. [?] BUT, no preference when no stress (boredom, fatigue, novel stimuli) present Fathers > more rough-and-tumble play; mothers > more feeding and nurturing. An interconnecting constellation of subsystems  Generations, genders, roles,  Reciprocal relationships

Attachment MUTUAL REGULATION MODEL RECIPROCAL SOCIALIZATION  Scaffolding (turn-taking) part of the process

Gender Dissimilar worlds for members of each sex, even during infancy. Fathers interact more with sons than daughters; mothers more with daughters. Fathers > more rough-and-tumble play; mothers > more feeding and nurturing. Infants wear different clothes and are given different toys based on gender. Infants behavior is interpreted differently depending on gender. Male infants are more active and fussier than females. By age one, infants are able to distinguish between males and females.

Day care and social and personality development. 2/3 between 4 months and 3 years of age spend time in non-parental child care. > 80% of infants are cared for by people other than mothers at some point during their first year of life.

Day Care: Assessing OutcomesPossible advantages Possible disadvantages Solve problems  Lower attachment. better.  Slower cognitive Pay greater attention development to others. Use language more  Illness effectively. Play well with others.

Where Are Children Cared For?

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