Published on February 19, 2008
Chapter 4Social and Personality Development in Infancy
Forming the Roots of Sociability: Emotions in Infancy Across every culture, infants show similar facial expressions relating to basic emotions. Influenced by bio AND exp. E.g., rules of display are culturally influenced Temperament
Emergence of Emotional Expressions: first expression of relationships • Enables coordinated interactions w/caregivers • Reciprocal changes in expression The “self-conscious” emotions (jealousy, empathy, embarrassment, pride, shame, and guilt) appear later
Emergence of Emotional Expressions: first expression of relationshipsCrying: at least three types: basic cry anger cry pain cry stimulated by physical pain or high-intensity stimulus
Emergence of Emotional Expressions: first expression of relationshipsSmiling: 2 types: Reflexive Social 4 months
Separation Anxiety (Protest)Begins ~ 8 or 9 months; peaks ~14months. (Slightly later than strangeranxiety.)Both stranger & separation anxietyrepresent important social progress!They reflect cognitive advances inthe infant, and growing emotionaland social bonds. http://media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/hss/shared_hss_assets/psychology/dev_vid/video_pop-ups/feldman_video_06-2.html
Separation Anxiety (Protest)A universal (but slightly varying) phenomenon
Social Referencing: Feeling What Others Feel Social Referencing>reading emotional cues to help determine how to act; esp facial expressions First occurs ~8-9 months. Most likely >uncertain and ambiguous situations. If Dad and Mom show conflicting emotions?[next]
Temperament Chess and Thomas’ Easy - 40% Difficult - 10% Slow-to-warm-up - 15% 35% cannot be consistently categorized Kagan’s Behavioral Inhibition/socially bold Effortful Control > high control = self- soothing; low control = easily agitated Biological foundations and experience
The Consequences of Temperament: Does Temperament Matter?GOODNESS OF FIT: Development is dependent on the degree of match between childrens temperament and the nature and demands of the environment in which they are being raised.= affect on LT dev’t
Infant Personality DevelopmentPersonality - enduring personal characteristics Includes emotions and temperamentErikson: Early Py is shaped largely by an infant’s personal experiences [next]
Stages/Crises First year of life; Trust Age 2: Independence “autonomy versus shame and doubt” when caregivers are impatient and do for toddlers what they are capable of doing themselves, shame and doubt develop
The Development of Self SELF-AWARENESS, knowledge of self, begins to grow ~12 months. mirror and rouge task. Most infants attempt to wipe off the rouge b/t 17-24 months. Ability to assess own physical features emerges in 2nd year. Crying, when presented with complicated tasks, implies consciousness. [next]
AttachmentKonrad Lorenz Imprinting Harry Harlow and one of his monkeys [next]
Attachment John Bowlby> attachment has a biological basis Ainsworth Strange Situation: illustrates the strength of attachment between a child and (typically) his or her mother [next]
Individual Differences in Attachment Responses the Strange Situation securely attached insecure avoidant insecure resistant insecure disorganized
Individual Differences in Attachment
Attachment: The Roles of Mother & Father When stressed, infants tend to prefer their mothers. [?] BUT, no preference when no stress (boredom, fatigue, novel stimuli) present Fathers > more rough-and-tumble play; mothers > more feeding and nurturing. An interconnecting constellation of subsystems Generations, genders, roles, Reciprocal relationships
Attachment MUTUAL REGULATION MODEL RECIPROCAL SOCIALIZATION Scaffolding (turn-taking) part of the process
Gender Dissimilar worlds for members of each sex, even during infancy. Fathers interact more with sons than daughters; mothers more with daughters. Fathers > more rough-and-tumble play; mothers > more feeding and nurturing. Infants wear different clothes and are given different toys based on gender. Infants behavior is interpreted differently depending on gender. Male infants are more active and fussier than females. By age one, infants are able to distinguish between males and females.
Day care and social and personality development. 2/3 between 4 months and 3 years of age spend time in non-parental child care. > 80% of infants are cared for by people other than mothers at some point during their first year of life.
Day Care: Assessing OutcomesPossible advantages Possible disadvantages Solve problems Lower attachment. better. Slower cognitive Pay greater attention development to others. Use language more Illness effectively. Play well with others.
Where Are Children Cared For?
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