Published on February 18, 2008
CHAPTER 3 PHYSICAL AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IN INFANCY
THE BRAIN • Contains tens of billions of nerve cells at birth • Shaken baby syndrome • Lateralization: Four Lobes 3-2
DENDRITIC SPREADING 3-3
SYNAPTIC DENSITY IN THE HUMAN BRAIN FROM INFANCY TO ADULTHOOD 3-4
THE COMPETENT NEWBORN Reflexes
SENSORY CAPABILITIES OF THE NEWBORN
CEPHALOCAUDAL AND PROXIMODISTAL PATTERNS • Cephalocaudal • Proximodistal • Hierarchical integration
THE FIRST YEAR • Average North American (full term) newborn ~ 20 inches long; 7 pounds • Lose ~5 to 7% of body weight adjusting to feeding. Back to birth wt in 2 wks. • Double birth weight by 5 months; nearly triple by 12 months
THE FIRST TWO YEARS 1 year: ~30 inches tall. 2 years: ~35 inches tall— nearly half of their eventual adult height
INTEGRATING THE BODILY SYSTEMS: THE LIFE CYCLES OF INFANCY Behavior becomes integrated through the development of various body rhythms
SLEEP • Considerable individual variation • newborns can sleep 16 to 18 hours a day (average ~16) • preferred patterns of sleep vary • Infants spend a greater amount of time in REM (rapid eye movement) sleep • by 3 months of age, the percentage of time in REM sleep decreases [next]
SIDS • children in U.S. 2063 (2010) • The leading cause of death in children under 1 year old (except for congenital abnormalities and short gestation) • Risk of SIDS is highest at 4 to 6 weeks of age • Occurs in children of every race and socioeconomic group (Congenital abnormalities = 5319; Short gestation = 4538)
DECLINING RATES OF SIDS SIDS Rate and Back Sleeping (1988 – 2006) 100 1.4 1.39 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.17 64.4 66.6 1.03 1.0 0.87 0.74 55.7 0.77 0.72 0.67 38.6 35.3 53.1 0.5 75.7 71.6 71.1 72.8 70.1 72.2 0.62 0.56 0.57 0.53 0.56 0.54 0.55 50 26.9 13 17 AAP Recommendation Year 20 20 05 20 01 04 20 20 00 03 20 02 99 20 98 19 97 19 19 19 19 96 93 95 19 94 92 19 19 91 90 19 19 19 19 89 0 88 0.0 Percent Back Sleeping SIDS Rate (Deaths Per 1,000 Live Births) 1.5 06 Back to Sleep Campaign SIDS Rate Source: CDC, National Center for Health Statistics, Sleep Position Data: NICHD, National Infant Sleep Position Study. U.S. rates have dropped dramatically as parents put babies ―back to sleep.‖
GROSS MOTOR SKILLS — LARGE MUSCLE ACTIVITIES • • • • • Move by themselves - 6 months Sit unsupported - 6 months. Crawling - 8-10 months Standing with support - 8 months Infants can walk holding onto furniture by 9 months and walk alone by ~1 year.
GROSS MOTOR SKILLS — LARGE MUSCLE ACTIVITIES
Physical Milestones First Year Eating: • Can begin using a ―sippy cup‖ • Can be spoon fed • Can be introduced to SMALL-SIZED solid foods Small Motor Coordination: • Can pick up toys in both hands (and bang them together!) • Will practice dropping objects • May throw objects (especially…everything) • Will begin to pick up ―Cheerios‖ or other small object with thumb and index finger
FINE MOTOR SKILLS • • • By 3 months infants can coordinate movements of limbs. Infants can grasp an object by 11 months. By age 2, infants can drink from a cup without spilling.
BENEFITS OF BREAST FEEDING • Appropriate weight gain; lowered risk of childhood obesity • Fewer allergies • Reduction of diarrhea, respiratory infections, bacterial and urinary tract infections • Denser bones in childhood and adulthood • Reduced childhood cancer and reduced incidence of breast cancer in mothers • Lower incidence of SIDS
INTRODUCING SOLID FOODS • Most babies begin to eat solid foods b/t 4-6 months • • Foods are introduced gradually Weaning • Many experts recommend infants be breast-fed for first 12 months of life.
DEVELOPMENT OF THE SENSES Infants hear from the time they are born— and even before
VISION Infants show clear visual preferences that are present at birth: • Prefer to look at patterns and complex stimuli, • Prefer to look at faces, • Minutes after birth they show a preference for certain colors, shapes, configurations. Robert Fantz found that 2- and 3-monthold infants preferred to look at more complex stimuli.
VISION, CONT. • • • Newborn infants cannot see beyond a distance of 20 feet By ~6 months, the average infant's vision is 20/20 Gibson's "visual cliff" experiments indicates depth perception
HEARING, TOUCH, AND PAIN • Prenatally at 7 months, infants can hear sounds such as mother’s voice and music • Immediately after birth, infants cannot hear soft sounds or pitch as well as adults do • Infants also display amazing resiliency • Within several minutes after the circumcision surgery (which is performed without anesthesia), they can nurse and interact in a normal manner with their mothers
SMELL AND TASTE • Newborns can differentiate odors • Sensitivity to taste might be present even before birth • At only 2 hours of age, babies made different facial expressions when they tasted sweet, sour, and bitter solutions
COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IN INFANCY © 2006 Pearson Education/Prentice-Hall Publishing
Infant cognition develops through changes in the way children approach problems (infants learn by doing).
ASSIMILATION AND ACCOMMODATION • Processes of development • Schemes: Actions or mental representations that organize knowledge • Behavioral scheme • Mental scheme • Assimilation: Using existing schemes to deal with new information or experiences • Accommodation: Adjusting schemes to fit new information and experiences Which one? 1. Infant uses sucking schema to suck on larger bottle/nipple after presentation of smaller one. 2. One-year-old grabs every ―round, rolly object‖ and tries to grab and throw; sees a beach ball.
PIAGET • Equilibration Mechanism by which children shift from one stage of thought to the next • Individuals go through four stages of development • Cognition is qualitatively different • Sensorimotor stage: Lasts from birth to about age 2. • Infants construct an understanding of the world by coordinating sensory experiences (such as seeing and hearing) with physical actions • Object permanence: Understanding that objects and events continue to exist: • When they cannot directly be seen, heard, or touched 3-33
SENSORIMOTOR STAGE • Six substages Primary Secondary • Tertiary circular reactions: Miniature ―experiments‖ Beginning of thought ~18-24 months of age • Mental representation
EVALUATING AND MODIFYING PIAGET’S SENSORIMOTOR STAGE • Motor emphasized at the expense of sensory -–largely ignores sensory and perceptual abilities of infants • Piaget's claim that certain processes are crucial in stage transitions is not always supported by the data • Some researchers conclude that infants’ perceptual abilities are highly developed very early in development Criticism of Piaget
LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT • All human languages have some common characteristics • Receptive/expressive You talkin’ to me?!
KEY MILESTONES IN LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT • Babies' sounds and gestures go through this sequence during the first year • Crying • Cooing • Babbling • First Words Average is 15 words by 15 months; First words are typically holophrases (Holophrastic stage ~12-18 months)
LANGUAGE SOUNDS • ~ 2-years-old, children can form nounverb sentences • Overextension • Underextension
A one-year-old signing ―sleep‖
LEARNING THEORY/NATIVIST APPROACHES • • Learning theory Chomsky > genetic; innate mechanism • • • All languages > similar underlying structure LAD Interactionist view
INFANT-DIRECTED SPEECH Use of this type of speech is related to the early appearance of words
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