Published on February 20, 2014
Chapter 15 & 16 Physical and Cognitive Development in Late Adulthood 60’s – 70’s to death PowerPoints developed by Jenni Fauchier, Metropolitan Community College -- Omaha
Life Span and Life Expectancy Life span Maximum number of yrs an individual can live 120 – 125 years; remains unchanged Life expectancy # of yrs average person, born in a particular year, will probably live Increased 31 years since 1900 Average U.S. life expectancy = 78 years 60’s – 70’s to death
Differences in Life Expectancy International differences due to Health conditions Medical care Sex differences Women 5 yrs longer Due to Health attitudes Habits Lifestyles Occupation Biological factors Females live longer across species 60’s – 70’s to death
Onset of Physical Changes Varies from person to person due to factors such as: 60’s – 70’s to death
Living to be 100 Increasing numbers Genes Family history Health Education Personality Lifestyle Geographic location Food availability issue 60’s – 70’s to death
Aging & Adapting Brain Brain loses volume & weight Some areas shrink more than others As brain ages, it adapts Lack of dendrite growth May be lack of stimulation Activity in brain Using both hemispheres may improve cognitive functioning 60’s – 70’s to death
Sensory Developments & Declines Inevitable if we live to old age: Vision decline Visual acuity Color vision Depth perception 60’s – 70’s to death
Sensory Developments Hearing Degeneration of cochlea Smell & taste Most lose some ability 60’s – 70’s to death
Circulatory System and Lungs Lung capacity drops 40% between 20 & 80 years Lungs lose elasticity Diaphragm weakens 60’s – 70’s to death
Sexuality Sexuality can be life-long Males orgasm less frequent erectile dysfunction Education may help deal with these issues – Insert tab A into tab B 60’s – 70’s to death
Health Problems Probability of illness increases Most common chronic disorders Arthritis Hypertension (high blood pressure) Connection between lower SES and debilitating chronic disorders 60’s – 70’s to death
Six Leading Causes of Death Heart disease Cancer Stroke Chronic lung diseases Pneumonia and influenza Diabetes 60’s – 70’s to death
Nutrition & Weight Strength training & aerobic activity recommended Leaner adults live longer, healthier lives Calorie restriction Increases life span of animals Not know in humans 60’s – 70’s to death
Multidimensionality & Multidirectionality Speed of processing information declines Likely due to decline in functioning of Brain Central nervous system Influencing factors Health Exercise 60’s – 70’s to death
Memory Declines in older adults Episodic memory Retention of information – Where – When Semantic memory Person’s knowledge about world – Fields of expertise – General academic knowledge – Everyday knowledge of » Words » Places » Things 60’s – 70’s to death
Memory Working memory Closely linked to short-term memory Emphasizes memory as a place for mental work Perceptual speed Amount of time it takes to perform simple perceptual-motor tasks Decline in perceptual speed linked to decline in working memory 60’s – 70’s to death
Training Cognitive Skills Training can improve cognitive skills Some loss of plasticity Especially older than 85 60’s – 70’s to death
Cognitive Neuroscience and Aging Lack of use of working memory May cause Neural connections in prefrontal lobes to atrophy Mental stimulation Most important in delaying brain deterioration 60’s – 70’s to death
Work Increasingly work part-time in retirement Probability of men’s employment: Correlated with educational attainment Married to a working wife Lower rate of absenteeism Fewer accidents Increased job satisfaction 60’s – 70’s to death
Adjustment to Retirement Best adjustment for those who are Healthy Adequate income Active Educated Extended social network Satisfied with life before retirement Flexible 60’s – 70’s to death
Depression Major depression Mood disorder Deeply unhappy Demoralized Self-derogatory Bored Symptoms increase, 85 & up Predictors of depression: Earlier symptoms Poor health Low social support 60’s – 70’s to death
Chapter 16 Socioemotional Development in Late Adulthood 60’s – 70’s to death PowerPoints developed by Jenni Fauchier, Buthered by Professor Carney
Activity Theory Activity theory The more active and involved that older adults are, the more likely they are to be satisfied with their lives Satisfied associated with being: Active Energetic Productive Continuing early adult roles – Or Substitutes that keep them active & involved 60’s – 70’s to death
Stereotyping Older Adults Ageism Prejudice because of age Increased numbers living longer & healthier Policy Issues Health care costs Caring for patients with chronic disease Eldercare 60’s – 70’s to death
Lifestyle Diversity Lifestyles changing Married older adults Happier Live longer Consequences of divorce for older adults Social Financial Physical Divorce Weakens kinship ties Negative social sanctions for elders who remarry 60’s – 70’s to death
Cohabitation Increasing numbers Goals are primarily for companionship Not marrying allows for retention of personal assets 60’s – 70’s to death
Friendship People choose close friends over New friends as they grow older Friends Associated with contentment Maybe more important than family in predicting mental health 60’s – 70’s to death
Social Convoy Model Social convoy model Social support enhances coping skills Lonely & socially isolated significant health risk 60’s – 70’s to death
Altruism and Volunteerism Volunteering as an older adult is associated with number of positive outcomes Higher satisfaction Less depression Less anxiety 60’s – 70’s to death
Ethnicity Minority Elderly Over-represented among poor Face Ageism Racism History of Less education Underemployment Poor housing conditions Shorter life expectancy Strong coping mechanisms Church membership Family support 60’s – 70’s to death
Gender Males become more androgynous Women face Ageism Sexism Poverty increased for elderly females Minority females Ageism Sexism Racism 60’s – 70’s to death
Culture Factors that predict status of older adults in a culture Have valuable knowledge Control key family/community resources Permitted to engage in useful functions Role changes involve more responsibility & authority Participation in extended family Respect for older adults greater 60’s – 70’s to death
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