Life Skills

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Information about Life Skills

Published on October 5, 2010

Author: slubaguio


Life Skills : Life Skills DR.A.ANAND, PhD. Definition of Life Skills : Definition of Life Skills The World Health Organization defines Life Skills as "abilities for adaptive and positive behaviour that enable individuals to deal effectively with the demands and challenges of everyday life Definition of Life Skills : Definition of Life Skills In primary and secondary education, Life Skills may refer to a skill set that accommodates more specific needs of modern industrialized life; examples include money management, food preparation, hygiene, basic literacy and numeracy, and organizational skills. Exploring Life Skills : Exploring Life Skills What Skills Do I Have? Objectives To explore the concept of life skills. To know the life skills used by the participants in their day-today life Exploring Life Skills : Exploring Life Skills “All of us have”, “Some of us have” and “None of us have”. Expected Outcomes Educator will become aware of the life skills that the participants possess and use in their day-to-day life. Participants will know about life skills and their use in day -to-day life. TEN Core Life skills : TEN Core Life skills UNICEF, UNESCO and WHO list the TEN core life skill strategies and techniques as: 1. Problem Solving, 2. Critical Thinking, 3. Effective Communication Skills, 4. Decision-making, 5. Creative Thinking, 6. Interpersonal Relationship Skills, 7. Self-awareness, 8. Building Skills, 9. Empathy, and 10. Coping With Stress and Emotions. Cognitive Abilities- 1. Decision Making Skills : Cognitive Abilities- 1. Decision Making Skills Decision making Information-gathering skills Evaluating future consequences of present actions for self and others Determining alternative solutions to problems Skills of analysis regarding the influence of values and attitudes of self and others on motivation Decision Making : Decision Making Introduction: People often find it hard to make decisions.  Some put off making decisions by endlessly searching for more information or getting other people to offer their recommendations.  Others resort to decision making by taking a vote, sticking a pin in a list or tossing a coin, etc. Regardless of the effort that is put into making a decision, it has to be accepted that some decisions will not be the best possible choice.  Objectives List stages of decision making. Describe structured decision making. Differentiate between intuitive and reasoned decision making. What is Decision Making? : What is Decision Making? In its simplest sense, decision making is the act of choosing between two or more courses of action.  However, it must always be remembered that there may not always be a 'correct' decision among the available choices.   There may have been a better choice that had not been considered, or the right information may not have been available at the time.  Because of this, it is important to keep a record of all decisions and the reasons why decisions were made, so that improvements can be made in the future.  This also provides justification for any decision taken when something goes wrong.  Hindsight might not be able to correct past mistakes, but it will aid improved decision making in the future. Effective Decision Making : Effective Decision Making Although decisions can be made using either intuition (e.g. following 'gut feelings') or reasoning, a combination of both approaches is often used.  Whatever approach is used, it is usually helpful to structure decision making in order to: Reduce more complicated decisions down to simpler steps. See how any decisions are arrived at. Plan decision making to meet deadlines 6 Steps to Better Decision Making : 6 Steps to Better Decision Making 1. Problem Definition Before you can start to take any decisions, you need to be absolutely clear the problem you are trying to reach a decision on. One simple technique is just to write out in a sentence what the problem is that you need to take a decision on. 2. Assess the implications All decisions have implications. If it is a decision at work, it has implications for you, your peers, your team and your superiors. Depending on the decision (e.g. a promotion at work) it may even have implications for your family, especially if it involves relocation. 6 Steps to Better Decision Making : 6 Steps to Better Decision Making 3. Explore different perspectives Perspectives are simply different lenses through which you look at the problem. By exploring different perspectives you start to get a feel for those that you are most attracted to. 4. Get clear on your ideal outcome When you are faced with a big decision, it is easy to get lost in the detail and circumstances. An alternative is to get clear on your ideal outcome and use this ideal outcome to inform your choices. Imagine you aspire to be a CEO of a Top 100 company. By having clarity on your outcome, you can make choices on promotions and experience linked to this ideal outcome. 6 Steps to Better Decision Making : 6 Steps to Better Decision Making 5. Weigh up Pros and Cons Another way of looking at a decision is to consider the advantages and disadvantages of each of the options open to you. Simply listing the advantages and disadvantages of each option is a powerful way of moving forward on decisions. 6. Decide and Act Once you have gone through the previous 5 steps, commit to a choice or course of action and start to make it happen. To avoid procrastination, give yourself permission to be okay with any failings that might arise. SWOT ANALYSIS : SWOT ANALYSIS This sample SWOT analysis is based on the relatively new concept of SWOT. The definition of SWOT analysis is to evaluate the qualitative (non-number) aspects of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of a company or organization. The purpose is to determine if your organization is capable of taking advantage of an opportunity that has presented itself. The answer is only yes if you decide that your strengths are greater than your weaknesses and the opportunity is greater than the threats. Slide 15: SWOT ANALYSIS             Fill in the boxes below to perform analysis     STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES   1. What is the value of the present opportunity? 1. What are the perceive weaknesses?           2. What unique resources are available?   2. What resources are inadequate?                3. What strengths can be acquired?   3. What weaknesses cannot be overcome?               Score(1-10)     Score(1-10)     1.   1.     2.   2.     3.   3.     Total   Total           SW Total =   OPPORTUNITIES THREATS     1. What is the value of the present opportunity? 1. Are there market-technology conditions that reduce the value             2. Is value enhanced by evolving  market-technology conditions? 2. What is the level of competition?               3. Is value enhance by your organization's core strengths? 3. Will your weaknesses limit your success?               Score(1-10)     Score(1-10)     1.   1.     2.   2.     3.   3.     Total   Total             OT Total =     Project Score = 2. Problem Solving Skills : 2. Problem Solving Skills One of the most exciting aspects of life is the array of choices that we have on a daily basis. Some of our decisions are simple, like deciding what to eat for dinner or what shirt to wear. However, some choices are challenging and take careful thought and consideration.When we are confronted with these types of decisions, it can be very difficult to decide on the best option, and we may be plagued by indecision. We may be forced to choose between two equally good options, or perhaps, we may have to pick between two choices that both have drawbacks. We may waver back and forth between different alternatives and may feel paralyzed to make the decision. Problem Solving Skills : Problem Solving Skills This is a very normal reaction to tough choices in our lives, and we all, at times, experience a sense of being unable to decide on some option. However, researchers have developed a technique that many people have found useful when they are trying to make a difficult decision or solve a problem that seems unsolvable. This procedure involves a series of steps that you can go through on your own when you are confronted with a decision or problem that needs to be solved. This approach may not work perfectly for all difficulties, but it may help with many of the problems you are confronted with in your life. Step 1: Problem Orientation : Step 1: Problem Orientation This step involves recognizing that a problem exists and that solving the difficulty is a worthwhile endeavor. It is important that you approach the decision-making process with a positive attitude and view the situation as an opportunity or challenge. You should try to approach the situation with confidence and with a willingness to devote some time and effort to finding an appropriate solution to your problem. Remember, you are a competent person, and the problem you are facing can likely be solved with a little hard work. Step 2: Problem Definition : Step 2: Problem Definition Before you start to tackle the current problem, it is important to clearly understand the difficulty and why you are unhappy with the current situation. This may seem obvious, but it is important that you really think about and gather information about the problem, and make sure that the problem you are trying to solve is the "real" problem. That is, sometimes people find a different problem than the one that is really distressing them, and focus on this one, since it is easier than dealing with the real problem. Step 2: Problem Definition : Step 2: Problem Definition This step really involves your thinking about the difficulty you are having, understanding the problem, and contemplating why the situation is distressing. Some people think of problems as a discrepancy between what they want and what the current situation is like. It is useful during this stage to think about how the current situation is different from how you would like it to be, and what your goals are for the state of affairs. If you are currently facing many difficult decisions, it may be helpful to prioritize those problems and deal with them one at a time. Step 3: Generation of Alternative Solutions : Step 3: Generation of Alternative Solutions During this stage, you should ask yourself, "What have I done in this situation in the past, and how well has that worked?" If you find that what you have done in the past has not been as effective as you would like, it would be useful to generate some other solutions that may work better. Even if your behavior in the past has worked like you wanted it to, you should think of other solutions as well, because you may come up with an even better idea. When you start to think of possible solutions, don't limit yourself; think of as many possible options as you can, even if they seem unrealistic. You can always discard implausible ideas later, and coming up with these may help generate even better solutions. You may want to write a list of possible options, or ask others what some solutions they might have for your problem. Step 4: Decision Making : Step 4: Decision Making Now you are ready to narrow down some of the options that you have generated in the previous step. It is important that you examine each of the options, and think about how realistic each is, how likely you would be to implement that solution, and the potential drawbacks of each. For example, if your solution costs a great deal of money or requires many hours of effort each day, this may be too difficult to implement. You should also consider the likelihood that each option has in terms of your being able to achieve the goals that you want regarding the solution. As you start to narrow down your choices, remember, no problem solution is perfect and all will have drawbacks, but you can always revise the solution if it does not work the way you want it to work. Step 5: Solution Implementation and Verification : Step 5: Solution Implementation and Verification Once you have examined all your options and decided on one that seems to accomplish your goals and minimizes the costs, it is time to test it out. Make sure that when you implement this solution, you do so whole-heartedly and give it your best effort. During this stage, you should continue to examine the chosen solution and the degree to which it is "solving" your problem. If you find that the solution is too hard to implement or it is just not working, revise it or try something else. Trying to solve these problems is never an easy task, and it may take several solutions before something works. But, don't give up hope, because with persistence and your best effort, many difficult decisions and problems can be made better! Interpersonal Relationship Skills : Interpersonal Relationship Skills DR.A.ANAND, PhD. Interpersonal Problem Solving : Interpersonal Problem Solving META MIRROR The Meta-Mirror is an exercise developed in 1988 by Robert Dilits, one of the co-developers of NLP, Meta Mirror help individuals build rapport with others or gain new understandings about a person or situation by exploring at least three to four different perspectives of a situation. By looking at things from multiple points of view, successful people are able to explore new ideas and create new choices META MIRROR : META MIRROR PERCEPTUAL POSITION FIRST POSITION THIRD POSITION SECOND POSITION 4TH POSITION First Perceptual Position (You) : First Perceptual Position (You) In this position, you are looking at the world only from your own point of view. You are completely associated, seeing through your own eyes, hearing through your own ears, feeling what you are feeling. This can be a position of strength (or selfishness) especially when you want to assert yourself, explore how you feel about a situation or outcome, and ensure that your needs are taken care of first. Second perceptual position (The other person’s shoe) : Second perceptual position (The other person’s shoe) When you step into this position, you are considered how the world would look, sound and feel from the other person’s perspective. You get to step into their shoes( or reality) and associate into them, seeing through their eyes and hearing what they are hearing, and feeling what they are feeling. This step is about projecting ‘you’ into ‘him or her’ and really understanding things from his or her perspective and gaining more precise information. And you are likely to get answers to the following questions in this position What was his or her role? What were his or her concerns and priorities? What sort of anxiety or emotions was he or she going through? What were the values and beliefs driving his or her behaviour? Third perceptual position (The Observer) : Third perceptual position (The Observer) When you walk in the third position, you become an observer seeing yourself in the first position and the other person in the second. From this position, you are a completely detached and dissociated from the other two positions. Imagine you are a Discovery channel documentary producer observing from a rational, logical and objective perspective. This is a mature and objective position whereby you may notice what both the other parties can carry on in a different manner to improve the relationship and reach a win-win outcome. Now take this new information back to the first position and test and future pace to see, hear and feel how the situation could improve with the new information in place. Fourth Position : Fourth Position "Fourth position" is a perceptual position which involves being associated in the whole system or 'field' relating to a particular interaction. It involves experiencing a situation with the best interest of the entire system in mind. META MIRROR : META MIRROR PERCEPTUAL POSITION FIRST POSITION THIRD POSITION SECOND POSITION 4TH POSITION Effective Communication Skills : Effective Communication Skills DR.A.ANAND, PhD. COMMUNICATION MODEL : COMMUNICATION MODEL According to Princeton Professor of psychology George Miller we receive 2 Million bits of sensory data every sec Deletion are important other wise we would go crazy– depression/happiness Distortions –when we make things better or worse – Phobia , fisher man Generalization – Prevents relearning- cycling, negative belief- bad experience with the dentist Internal representation affects the way we feel is called as the state in NLP Internal representations – physiology – results -LUCKY Negotiating Skills-Chunking- : Negotiating Skills-Chunking- DR.A.ANAND, PhD. How to Negotiate: Chunking : How to Negotiate: Chunking Have you ever: Wanted to do something, but did not feel motivated about it? Been stuck in negotiation and can’t seemed to reach an agreement fast? Been brainstorming for ideas and not come out with anything new? Chunking : Chunking Felt overwhelmed with an activity Chunking can help you get past the above obstacles. Any subject can be viewed in larger or smaller parts or chunks. By adding new associations, chunking lets you see the matter differently. Chunking : Chunking A chunk means pieces of information that hang together in a meaningful way. For example, H, O, M, E is four chunks, but the word “home” is one chunk. 7 (seven), 3 (three), 9 (nine) are three chunks, but 739 (seven hundred thirty-nine) is one chunk. Everyone would agree that it is easier to remember one chunk than it is to remember three or four! Chunking : Chunking To use the Chunking Technique, all you have to do is to break down the information into smaller, meaningful groups or chunks. Keep in mind that it’s easier to remember several shorts lists rather then one long one. You can remember more if you separate it into meaningful bits: FB-IM-B-AC-IAI-BMB-MW –vs- FBI-MBA-CIA-IBM-BMW This number appears too long to remember, doesn’t it? 8 0 7 3 4 3 8 1 1 0 When you put into telephone-number format, like this 807-343-8110, it’s easier to remember! Chunking : Chunking Chunking up from part to whole allows you to appreciate the whole by seeing how it is made from the parts and how the parts relate To illustrate the concept, let us begin with a tree. Example of chunking up from tree would be: Wood ( a tree is a part of wood), or Vegetation ( wood is part of vegetation), or Ecosystem (vegetation is a part of ecosystem) Chunking : Chunking Chunking Down (becoming more specific) Moving from the general to the specific or detailed information is called ‘chunking down’ Chunking down also helps you to become more precise. Examples of chunking down or being more specific on tree are: Oak tree Branches of the oak tree Leaves on the branches of the oak tree Chunking : Chunking Chunking sideways Chunking sideways involves finding other examples at the same level of information. To chunk sideways You chunk sideways by going from one member of a class to another member of the same class, or from one part of the whole to another part of the same whole, for example from ‘oak tree’ to ‘coconut tree; to casuarinas tree’ Negotiation and Mediation : Negotiation and Mediation Negotiation and Mediation – according to Albert Einstein “ No problem can be solved from the same level of consciousness that created it” often in negotiations, we continue to explore solutions at a level of thought at which we do not agree. The solution is to chunk up until you and the other party comes to an agreement and then to, as fast as possible, chunk back down to the details while still maintaining the “Agreement Frame” Coping With Stress and Emotions : Coping With Stress and Emotions DR.A.ANAND, PhD. Anchoring : Anchoring What is anchoring? Anchoring in simple term “is a technique to elicit certain response in a person with a trigger” This can happen at random in the course of living or it can be deliberate Anchoring : Anchoring Emotional freedom comes from being aware of the anchors you have and choosing to respond only to the ones you want. Examples of Visual anchors: National flag, Advertisement Auditory anchors: Your name, Music Anchoring : Anchoring Kinesthetic anchors: Comfortable chair, a bath or shower Olfactory anchors: Smell of newly baked bread, smell of a hospital Gustatory: Taste of coffee, taste of your favorite food How to Anchor a Person : How to Anchor a Person FOUR STEPS TO ANCHOR Ask a person to recall a vivid and resourceful experience Anchor the resourceful state just at the peak Break state Fire of the anchor to test ANCHORING : ANCHORING Application of anchor ANCHORING : ANCHORING Stacking Anchors Collapse Anchors Chaining Anchors The Ring of Power “We need Change” Confidence Building : Confidence Building Ring of Power Confidence Building : Confidence Building 1. WHAT IS SELF-CONFIDENCE? Self-confidence is the inner feeling of certainty. It is a feeling of certainty about who you are and what you have to offer to the world. It is also the feeling that you are worthwhile and valuable. Everyone craves to possess self-confidence because it makes life so much easier and so much more fun. 2. WHAT SELF-CONFIDENCE IS NOT : 2. WHAT SELF-CONFIDENCE IS NOT Self-confidence is not acting like you are better than others. Self-confidence is not feeling like you are better than others. Self-confidence is not the ability to step on others or promote yourself by tearing someone else down 3. WHAT WILL SELF-CONFIDENCE DO FOR ME? : 3. WHAT WILL SELF-CONFIDENCE DO FOR ME? Having self-confidence is the same as having a magic wand in your hand. When you are confident people are attracted to you. You find that people want to be around you – for all kinds of reasons – to date you, to learn from you, to play with you, to experience life with you and for many, many other reasons. Self-confidence is powerful. You will find that by taking the time to learn to be self-confident, life will begin to change for you in almost every way possible. How to develop self-confidence the NLP Way : How to develop self-confidence the NLP Way Ring of Power The Ring of Power is a resource anchor that is useful in many circumstances as a resource anchor. Anchor a number of positive powerful states to an imagined circle on the floor: "Imagine a Ring of Power in front of you as a circle about 2 feet in diameter." THE RING OF POWER : THE RING OF POWER Now remember a time when you were totally confident and when you are totally confident, then step into the Ring. When the state begins to subside then step out of the ring. Add additional desired states in the same way. When done adding all states, step into the Ring of Power and test. Undoing Limiting Beliefs : Undoing Limiting Beliefs DR.A.ANAND, PhD NLP Presuppositions/ Basic Principles of NLP : NLP Presuppositions/ Basic Principles of NLP People respond to their map of reality, not to the reality itself. Energy flows where attention goes. If one person can do something, then it is possible for anyone to learn NLP Presuppositions/ Basic Principles of NLP : NLP Presuppositions/ Basic Principles of NLP Behind every behavior is a positive intent. People always make the best choice they can at the time. Choice is better than no choice. Anyone can do anything given the right strategy. NLP Presuppositions/ Basic Principles of NLP : NLP Presuppositions/ Basic Principles of NLP There is no such thing as failure, only feedback. The meaning of the communication is the response you get. Behavioral flexibility: The person with the most behavioral flexibility in a given interaction will get the best outcome If you want to understand –Act Undoing Limiting Belief : Undoing Limiting Belief What are beliefs? Beliefs make up what we perceive as reality and they tend to operate behind the scenes at an unconscious level How do beliefs work? Beliefs are the on/off switch for our actions and therefore our results Whether you believe you can or cannot you are right! Beliefs can be empowering and at the same time debilitating Undoing Limiting BeliefsTake Control Of Your Limiting Belief : Undoing Limiting BeliefsTake Control Of Your Limiting Belief Exercise 3 2 LIMITING BELIEF 1 DR.A.ANAND : DR.A.ANAND

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