Life and living things

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Information about Life and living things

Published on March 30, 2013

Author: LKOTZE



Unit one of Andries Oliviers' Natural Science Grade 8 Textbook

Energy in an ecosystem
Soil as the basis of life
Plant adaptations
Adaptations of animals
Natural selection

Life andliving things

Dependency InEcosystems

The ecosystemAndries p 1

Demarcated and self-supporting stable area in which all living organisms (biotic) interact with their non-living, physical environments (abiotic). Ecosystem definitionAndries p 1

Andries p 1 Ecosystem definition

The sun as asource of energyin an ecosystem Ecosystem definitionAndries p 1

 = main energy source on Andries p 1

 energy Carbon dioxide Water To make food. use This is known asAndries p 1 Photosynthesis

Chemical reaction inside  cells.Andries p 1 Photosynthesis

Takes place in special structures of green cells, known as chloroplasts.Andries p 1

Chloroplasts containchlorophyll,which can trap energy. Andries p 1 Photosynthesis

Chloroplasts trap light energy Light energy Water enters leaf Sugar leaves leaf. Part of this is used for cell division, the rest is stored as starch. Carbon dioxide enters leaf through stomataAndries p 1 Photosynthesis

When  and  breathe,they release carbon dioxide, which is used by . release oxygen, which is used by . Andries p 1

 purify the Andries p 2

Types ofAndries p 2 eaters

1 Producers 2 Consumers 3Andries p 2 Decomposers

1 Only green plants are called producers because they photosynthesise.Andries p 2

2 a Primary b Secondary cAndries p 2 Tertiary

a Feed directly off plants. Called herbivores.Andries p 2

b Feed off Feed off plants animals. and animals. Called Called carnivores. omnivores.Andries p 2

c Scavengers Feed off secondary consumers.Andries p 2 Called carnivores.

Consumers use the potential for energy insugar in a process called respiration to unlock energy needed to live. Andries p 2

3 Bacteria and fungi break down the bodies of dead plants and animals. Called decomposers.Andries p 2

Energy flowAndries p 3

 to  to When  and die, their bodies are broken up by decomposersAndries p 3

● Food chains ● Food webs ● PyramidsAndries p 3

Transfer of energy and substancesneeded for life, through a  to a  to a. Food chainsAndries p 3

Andries p 3

Where an organism feeds off more than one organism. Multiple food chains Food websAndries p 3

Andries p 3

Individual feeding groups form feeding levels. Ecological pyramidAndries p 3

Level 1 : Producers – manufacture food by photosynthesis Ecological pyramidAndries p 3

Level 2 : Herbivores – eat Also omivores and decomposers Ecological pyramidAndries p 3

Level 3 : predators, scavengers – eat herbivores Also omivores and decomposers Ecological pyramidAndries p 3

Level 4 : top carnivores/predators – eat other carnivores Also omivores and decomposers Ecological pyramidAndries p 3

Andries p 3

Soil is the basis of lifeAndries p 13

Thin Superficial Covering  Plants grow Animals live SoilAndries p 13

Andries p. 13

and...Andries p. 13

Andries p. 13

Classificationof soil typesAndries p. 13

O – fresh and/or partially decomposed matter A – provides plants with nutrients B – denser layerC – original parent rock breaks up R - solid Andries p. 13

Characteristics of the different soil typesAndries p. 13

Sand Large particles & spaces Low water retention Minerals dissolve and leech Dry Porous Light Not fertile Few plantsAndries p. 13

Clay Very small particles & spaces Very little air High water retention Not fertile Dry: very hard and does not break easilyAndries p. 13

Loam Mix small & large particles Retain water, air and minerals Fertile soil Humus The darker, the more fertileAndries p. 13

Soil fertilityAndries p. 13

Soil is  in material needed to keep ❁ gro wing. Andries p. 13 Soil fertility

Andries p. 13 Factors of Soil fertility

HumusAndries p. 13

Living things in the soilAndries p. 14

...and soilAndries p. 13

❁ grow. Protection HabitatAndries p. 14

Form soil - weathering Roots stabilise soil Makes soil fertile Roots let air inAndries p. 14

Andries p. 13 ...and soil

safety feedingAndries p. 14

Digging animals let air in Makes soil fertileAndries p. 14

Plant adaptationsIn order to survive In a habitatAndries p. 18

HabitatAndries p. 18

Natural environment where living organisms normally occur.Andries p. 18 Habitat definition

Adaptationsof plantsAndries p. 18

1 2 3 XerophytesVery dry areas Hydrophytes Mesophytes● Absorb quickly ● Store● Reduce losses Tolerate ● dehydration Andries p. 18

Xerophytes: Succulent Non-succulentAndries p. 18

The aloe Aloe transvaalensisAndries p. 19

ROOTS Widely spreadAllow absorption ofwater over a large area ShallowAbsorb dew or light rain Layer of cork Prevents dehydration Thick and fleshy Stored effectively Andries p. 19

STEM Thick and fleshy Stores waterOlder sections – corkYouger sections – wax Leaf basePrevents dehydration Grows verticallyMinimum exposure to sun, prevents dehydration ShortPrevents transpiration Andries p. 19

LEAVESLarge, thick and fleshyStore large amounts Wax cover cuticle Limits transpiration Rosette shapeShadows – limit transpirationDirect water to stem and soil Stomata small, few and sunken Limit transpiration Andries p. 19

Sunken stomataAndries p. 19

1 2 3 Hydrophytes Xerophytes Very wet areasVery dry areas 5 types: Mesophytes● Absorb quickly ● Marsh plants ● Store ● Swamp plants● Reduce losses ● Anchored, ● Tolerate with floating leaves ● Free-floating dehydration ● Submerged Andries p. 20

The water-lily nympheaAndries p. 20

ROOTS Small systemActs only as anchor, not for water absorption Poorly developedOther plant parts in the water help to absorb salt and water Andries p. 20

STEMSNo strengthening tissueWater supports the plant Rhizome Flat, horisontal – little water resistance Water and food storagePoor conducting tissue No need for water transportation Mucous layer Protective covering against bacteria Buds occurAndries p. 20 Make new plants

LEAVES Large, flat, round Float, increase absorption surfaceStomata on surfaceencourage transpiration, gaseous exchangeWaxy cuticle on surface Water runs off easilyNo waxy cuticle belowNo need to reduce water loss Long, flexible petioleAllows leaf to foat above water Andries p. 21

LEAVES Air chambers Respiration, buoyant plants – maximise photosynthesisPetiole and lower leaf – mucous layer Protective layer, reduces friction No strengthening tissue in petioles Water support leaf and petiole Andries p. 21

1 2 3 Hydrophytes Xerophytes Very wet areas MesophytesVery dry areas Average amount 5 types:● Absorb quickly ● Marsh plants of water ● Store ● Swamp plants Roots in the soil● Reduce losses ● Anchored, absorb water Stems strengthening ● Tolerate with floating leaves tissue hold leaves up ● Free-floating dehydration Leaves differing ● Submerged shapes and sizes Andries p. 20 for photosynthesis

Adaptations of animals withregard to feedingAndries p. 25

Need lots of energy for flight and body temperature maintenance d o de lo -b rm maxilla wa mandible Beak and feet indicate the dietAndries p. 25

Herbivorous birds Beaks are short and strong Maxilla > mandible Seeds are soaked in the croup Sparrow Four toes, ending in sharp, slightly rounded clawsPigeonAndries p. 25 Walking and gripping

Eagle Carnivorous birdsOwl Strong, sharp, curved beaks Maxilla curves down – sharp hook Sides = sharp Cut and tear Sharp, curved, powerful Catch & hold prey + defense Andries p. 25

Duck Omnivorous birds What do you see when you look at the beak/bill of theseHow do their feet differ? birds?Why?Crow Andries p. 26

Constant body temperature needs a lot of energy from food Permanent teethTeeth for chewing Warm blooded Baby sealAndries p. 27 Milk teeth

Andries p. 27

Dentition of p. 27

MOLARS: Often lack well developed incisors – grind in upper jawsDentition of Long digestive systems p. 27

Dentition of Ruminators: Partially chew food and store in first two stomachs, to be chewed again p. 28

h et te s ng one s tr o ff bDentition of nd at o a e e rg ip m La o r t Cats: claws Sharp sense of smell, sight and hearing p. 28

Dentition of p. 28

Different insects have different MOUTH PARTSbiting-chewing chewing-suckingpiercing-sucking suckinglicking-suckingAndries p. 29

Biting-  chewing Labrum Mandible Maxillae insectsAndries p. 29 Labium

Biting-chewingLabrum MandiblesMaxillae Andries p. 30 Labium  insects

Licking-suckingNo mandibles and maxillaeLabium forms proboscis  insectsAndries p. 30

Adaptations with regard to predation and protectionAndries p. 37

Manner in which an  s colour or  blends with the environment, in order for Shape it to make itself as difficult as possible to see.Movement ColourAndries p. 37 Camouflage definition

Camouflage by imitation of , colour and behaviour of another type of . Shape Model is usually poisonous,Behaviour aggressive and conspicuous in colour ColourAndries p. 37 Mimicry definition

Natural selection and adaptationAndries p. 40

A group of individuals with the same characteristics.Andries p. 40 Population definition

Andries p. 40 Population definition

Individual organisms in a population are not identical copies. Andries p. 40 Variation definition

Andries p. 40

A population develops properties that will afford them a better chance of survival.Andries p. 40 Natural selection

Factors influencing natural Over production Continuous competition Variation between individuals Survival of the fittestselection Hereditary Andries p. 40

When a habitat changes too fast, the species may not adjust and can die.Andries p. 41 Extinction

Andries p. 41

Textbook: Andries Olivier, Grade 8 workbook, 2012Images: attempt has been made to cknowledge all sources,it an images source could not be found, it wasacknowledged as such.Slide 1 – cairoo software Slide 2 – Encyclopedia BrittanicaSlide 3 – Encyclopedia Brittanica Slide 5 – ericopincar.comSlide 6 – cairoo software Slide 10 – scientificamerican.comSlide 11 – forestry-learning, Slide 12 courtneystanifer.edublogs.orgSlide 15 – source unknown Slide 17 – cairoo softwareSlide 19 – Slide 38 – cairoo software

Slide 20 a – unknown source Slide 20 b – cairoo softwareSlide 21 a – gardenofeden.blogspot.comSlide 21 b – Slide 23 – hopeful-ink.blogspot.comSlide 28 – Slide 30 – 36 – Slide 38 – cairoo software

Slide 40 a – cairoo softwareSlide 40 b – 40 c – cairoo softwareSlide 40 d – cairoo softwareSlide 40 e – Slide 41 a – sciencephotolibrary Slide 41 b – nunukphotos.comSlide 42 – Slide 43 – en.wikipedia.orgSlide 44 – source unknown Slide 45 – hdwallpapersdepot.comSlide 46 – source unknown Slide 47 – informedfarmers.comSlide 48 – Slide 50 a – Slide 50 b – Slide 50 c – carioo software Slide 50 d – carioo software

Slide 51 – cairoo software Slide 52 – sciencephotolibrarySlide 53 – Slide 56 - sciencephotolibrarySlide 57 – cairoo software

Slide 59 – Slide 60 – wildernesscollege.comSlide 62 – Slide 64 a – Slide 64 b – nowaterriver.comm Slide 64 c – Slide 64 d – Slide 64 e – Slide 64 f – kapstadt.orgSlide 66 – 68 – Slide 69 – 72 – 75 – Slide 77 – fwallpapers.comSlide 78 – Slide 79 a – Slide 79 b –

Slide 80 a – amjunk.blogspot.comSlide 80 b- Slide 81 a – Slide 81 b – thecomicscode.weebly.comSlide 82 – Slide 83 - yummybubby.comSlide 84 - Slide 85 – skullsunlimited.comSlide 86 – Slide 87 – rawdogfood.comSlide 88 – Slide 89 – nevercomeashore.blogspot.comSlide 90 – Slide 91 – 13060yurac.vacau.comSlide 92 – Slide 93 –

Slide 94 – Slide 95 – devpolicy.comSlide 96 – Slide 98 – cffet.netSlide 100 a – flickr.comSlide 100 b – Slide 104 –

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