Published on August 27, 2007
Mental models and the bibliographic universe: Mental models and the bibliographic universe Jan Pisanski Maja Žumer LIDA 2007 Overview: Overview FRBR – conceptual model of bibliographic universe (What?, Why?, Why not?) Comparing mental models and conceptual model of bibliographic universe (What? Why? How?) Proposed research Bibliographic universe: Bibliographic universe 'totality of bibliographic entities and their relationships' (Fattahi, 1997) Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR) study (IFLA’s Study Group), final report (1998), conceptual (E-R) model NOT a data model, NOT a standard FRBR Entities: FRBR Entities Entities (3 groups), relationships between these entities and their attributes Group 1 entities Work (a distinct intellectual or artistic creation) Expression (an intellectual or artistic realization of a work) Manifestation (a physical embodiment of an expression) Item (a single exemplar of a manifestation) FRBR (Item and Manifestation): FRBR (Item and Manifestation) Item (a single exemplar of a manifestation) My copy, my library’s copy… Manifestation (a physical embodiment of an expression) Doubleday, 2003 FRBR (Expression and Work ): FRBR (Expression and Work ) Expression (an intellectual or artistic realization of a work) Brown’s original English text Work (a distinct intellectual or artistic creation) The Da Vinci code by Dan Brown Importance of a conceptual model of bibliographic universe: Importance of a conceptual model of bibliographic universe Improves cataloguing and catalogs (it was done in order to cut the costs, to better satisfy user needs…) An example of end-user benefit Present displays too chaotic, relationships not explicit For works with numerous editions In union catalogues, national bibliographies, portals (aggregation) Benefits of FRBR (example): Benefits of FRBR (example) The European Library (TEL) portal EDLproject (a Targeted Project funded by the European Commision under the eContentplus programme) (WP2, Task 6) Explore options of interoperability with other cultural heritage communities Test the use of FRBR – a small exploratory study of 'frbrization' (extracting FRBR structure from existing bibliographic records) But…potential problem of FRBR: But…potential problem of FRBR (+) User-focused but… (-) NO user studies (to save time and money) (-) 'FRBR models what we do, not what we should do' (P.LeBoeuf) - current cataloguing practice (+) Based on experience (incl. previous user studies) / world-class experts / long revision process No formal confirmation of validity of FRBR What can be looked at?: What can be looked at? 'Frbrized' OPACs In practice: not using full FRBR structure (result of cataloguing practice -andgt; FRBR does not model what we should do nor what we do?) Our answer: MENTAL MODELS of BIBLIOGRAPHIC UNIVERSE Mental models: Mental models Various definitions (sometimes mutually exclusive, e.g. static : change over time), various concepts Norman : 'the models people have of themselves, others, the environment, and the things they interact with' Mental models vs. conceptual models: Mental models vs. conceptual models Usually how mental models match conceptual model, but… Should conceptual models be questioned? Carlyle: FRBR not true or false – does it serve its purpose? But can it be improved? Possible traps: Possible traps Mental models of bibliographic universe: very abstract Mental models may be influenced by present catalogue design and cataloguing practice Mental model elicitation: Mental model elicitation Various methods (observations, interviews, verbal protocols, repertory grid technique,…) Card sorting Card sorting: Card sorting Non-verbal 15-30 participants Generative (good for domain modeling) Card sorting: Card sorting Set of cards with descriptions (of instances of Group 1 entities), Non-library terminology, e.g. 'Dan Brown’s novel the Da Vinci Code' or 'The Da Vinci Code, published by Doubleday in 2003' – limit the effect of current cataloguing practice Card sorting: Card sorting At least 3 groups Criterion: concrete/abstract nature of the instance of the example on the card (too complicated?) Asked to name the groups Subsequent informal semi-structured interviews Concept mapping (What-comes-out-of-what?) – Do mental models change? What comes out of what?: What comes out of what? The parting shot: The parting shot Very abstract concepts Results - valid only for small population: More FRBR user studies are needed (including studies of prototypes)!!!! THANK YOU! ANY QUESTIONS? E-mail: email@example.com
Bibliographic records in an online ... Pisanski and Žumer ... Retrieved from http://www.ffos.hr/lida/datoteke/LIDA2007-Pisanski_Zumer.ppt ...
Mental models and the bibliographic universe Jan Pisanski Maja Žumer LIDA 2007
Bibliographic records in an online environment. ... Pisanski and Žumer (2007, ... Retrieved from http://www.ffos.hr/lida/datoteke/LIDA2007-Pisanski_Zumer.ppt;