Published on March 12, 2014
libinjectionFrom SQLi to XSS Nick Galbreath @ngalbreath! Signal Sciences Corp! firstname.lastname@example.org Code Blue ∙ Tokyo ∙ 2014-02-17
Nick Galbreath @ngalbreath • Founder/CTO of Signal Sciences Corp • Before: IponWeb (Moscow, Tokyo) • Before: Etsy (New York City)
What is libinjection? • A small C-library to detect SQLi attacks in user- input • With API in python, lua and php • Introduced at Black Hat USA 2012 • Open source with BSD license • https://github.com/client9/libinjection
Why libinjection? • Existing detection is mostly done with regular expressions • No unit tests • No performance (speed) tests • No coverage tests • No accuracy or precision tests • No false positive tests • “what are they actually doing?”
libinjection SQLi Today • Version 3.9.1 • 8000 unique SQLi ﬁngerprints • 400+ unit tests • 85,000+ SQLi samples
In Use At • mod_security WAF - http://www.modsecurity.org/ • ironbee WAF - https://www.ironbee.com/ • glastopf honeypot - http://glastopf.org/ • proprietary WAFs • internally at many companies • partial pure-java port
Similar to SQLi • No standard detection library • Few if any have tests • Regular expression based detection • Can we do better?
HTML Injection Samples <b>XSS</b> (raw HTML) <foo XSS> (tag attribute from user input) <foo name=XSS> (tag value from user input) <foo name='XSS'> (quoted value) <foo name="XSS"> (quoted value) <foo name=`XSS`> (IE only!)
Browser HTML Tokenization • Previously every browser parsed or tokenised HTML differently. • This lead to a number of different attacks using broken html tags, special characters or encodings. • Now, most browsers now use the same algorithm speciﬁed by HTML5.
> 65% are HTML5 http://tnw.co/1cqFueo
Every Tokenization Step
Is Clearly Deﬁned
The remainder are IE • And IE only has a few versions • And has some well-known exceptions to the HTML5 parsing rules.
IE6 and IE7 • IE7 has only 2% of market share • IE6 will, in time, go away. • Both are likely running on 10 year old machine.
IE8 • Somewhere between 10-20% marketshare • The most modern MS browser on Windows XP • Marketshare can only go down.
Opera • 1.33% Global Market Share • But maybe 40% of that is ‘Opera Mini’ for phone or embedded systems • Opera has a lot of oddities in HTML functionality and parsing • Ignoring
HTML injection attacks in HTML5 clients. • No: XML / XSLT injection • No: Any injection for IE6, IE7, Opera, FF and Chrome older than a year. • No: DOM style attacks (need a client solution)
libinjection html5 • Full HTML5 Tokenizer. • Does not build a tree or DOMs • Just emits tokenizer events. • Zero copying of data
Tokenization Sample TAG_NAME_OPEN img ATTR_NAME src ATTR_VALUE junk ATTR_NAME onerror ATTR_VALUE alert(1); TAG_NAME_CLOSE > <img src=“junk” onerror=alert(1);>
Check in each Context Each input is parsed in at least 6 different HTML contexts, because thats how XSS works! <b>XSS</b> (raw HTML) <foo XSS> (tag attribute from user input) <foo name=XSS> (tag value from user input) <foo name='XSS'> (quoted value) <foo name="XSS"> (quoted value) <foo name=`XSS`> (IE only!)
XSS Cheat sheets • Most are outdated (exploits for Firefox 3! ) • sorry OWASP :-( • Each entry validated to make sure they are valid for HTML5 browsers.
HTML5SEC.org • Fantastic resource • But lists many examples for Firefox 3 and/or obsolete Opera versions • Pruned to focus on HTML5 browsers
@soaj1664ashar • Produces interesting new XSS regularly • If you like XSS you should follow him on Twitter
Attack / Scanners • Integrate one scanner’s test cases • Using Shazzer fuzz databases - http://shazzer.co.uk/
Available Now • Available on github • http://libinjection.client9.com/ • but… still alpha
IE Unbalanced Quotes • IE 8+ has strange behaviour with ‘unbalanced quotes’ inside comments and attribute values. • Work in progress
Performance 500,000+ checks per second
TODO 2014-02-17 • It’s alpha — so it’s likely to have some spectacular failures (bypasses) • False-positive QA not completed. • Currently does not handle some IE injections • Does not have a test-bed for experimenting (maybe later this week). • More QA, code-coverage needed • No bindings for scripting languages (soon).
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