Published on January 24, 2009
Did the Training Work? The Four Levels of Evaluation Created by Dawn Drake, 2008
Dawn DrakePage 2 Birth of The Model • Developed by Donald L. Kirkpatrick • 1959: Four article series: “Techniques for Evaluating Training Programs” (Training and Development, ASTD) • The Kirkpatrick Model • 1998: Evaluating Training Programs: The Four Levels • Widely recognized by training and HR professionals
Dawn DrakePage 3 The Four Levels Immediate 1. Learner Reactions 2. Learning Delayed 3. Job Behavior 4. Observable Results Instruction
Dawn DrakePage 4 Level 1: Learner Reaction Features • Asks for learners’ opinions: Were they “smiling when they left”? Challenges • Provides no proof of learning • Responses may not be honest (“If you can’t say something nice…”) • Determining when negative results indicate a valid need to modify training Benefits • Can be used to identify support vs. resistance • Can identify some trouble spots that may impact learning • Indicates what they will tell others (managers, peers) Smile Sheets
Dawn DrakePage 5 Level 2: Learning Features • Test knowledge and skills • Tie directly to course objectives • Simulate performances as much as possible Challenges • Defining performance objectives that can be measured in the testing environment • Obtaining client agreement that achieving the objectives will provide skills needed to meet performance standards • Ensure evaluations measure the learning objectives! Benefits • Provides evidence of whether learners gained knowledge/skills targeted by training • Identifies areas for improving training • Identifies areas where learners’ knowledge/skills still fall short of requirements Note: A single evaluation shows the current state. To show a change, you must establish a baseline (pre-evaluation) for comparison.
Dawn DrakePage 6 Features • Evaluates whether skills taught are being used on the job (transferred) • Delay between training and evaluation (usually several weeks) Challenges • May need to survey others, including managers and “customers” • Other factors may affect transfer Benefits • Can provide evidence of training effectiveness • When Level 2 results are good but Level 3 results are poor, can lead to consideration of other blocks to performance • Too much time between training and implementation? • Lack of support on the job? • Problems with the tool? • Lack of motivation? Level 3: Job Behavior (Transfer)
Dawn DrakePage 7 Level 4: Observable Results (Impact) Features • Intended to evaluate the impact of training on business results (longer range) • Usually done only for selected programs due to cost and difficulty Challenges • Due to time elapsed, usually impossible to screen out other variables that impact results • Establish criteria for “success” in advance, with client’s agreement Benefits • Shows value of training for achieving strategic business goals (ROI) Reduce costs by increasing efficiency Costs
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Kirkpatrick's four levels of training evaluation model measuring reaction of students, learning, behaviour and results.
DEFINITION. The Four Levels of Evaluation, also referred to as the Kirkpatrick Evaluation Model, was created by Donald Kirkpatrick, Ph.D. to define the ...
Kirkpatrick's Four Level Evaluation model is used with training processes to measure 1) the learner's reaction, 2) learning that takes place, 3 ...
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Kirkpatrick's 4-Level Training Evaluation Model helps you evaluate the effectiveness of a training program.
The Kirkpatrick Model, or four levels of training evaluation, consists of Reaction, Learning, Behavior & Results. Read on for a description of each level.
Level 4 – Business Impact. ... As with all other levels of evaluation, it is vital that the outcomes of the evaluation at this level are acted on.
In this five part series covering the Kirkpatrick model of evaluation this post takes a specific look at the issues associated with Level 1.