Leukemia(Blood Cancer) Treatment Options in India

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Information about Leukemia(Blood Cancer) Treatment Options in India
Health & Medicine

Published on February 15, 2014

Author: medworld_india

Source: slideshare.net

Description

Leukemia(Blood Cancer ) is a cancer of the bone marrow and blood and is the most common type of childhood cancer. The bone marrow is the soft, spongy center of the bones and produces the three types of blood cells: white blood cells that fight infection, red blood cells that carry oxygen and platelets that help with blood clotting and bleeding .

World's Most Advanced Medical Treatment in India - Get free Expert Medical Opinion and Treatment Estimate Cost Leukemia (Blood Cancer) Treatment Options in India Lymphomas (Blood Cancer ) is a cancer of the bone marrow and blood and is the most common type of childhood cancer. The bone marrow is the soft, spongy center of the bones and produces the three types of blood cells: white blood cells that fight infection, red blood cells that carry oxygen and platelets that help with blood clotting and bleeding . Leukemia(Blood Cancer ) begin in the bone marrow from where blood is produced. An uncontrolled growth of an abnormal type of blood cell interrupts the development process of a normal blood cell. The cancerous cells or abnormal blood cells prevent the blood from performing functions such as preventing serious bleeding or fighting off with infections. Causes and risk factors The cause of this cancer is unknown for most patients. However, lymphomas may develop in people with a weakened immune system such as in organ transplant patients on immunosuppressive drugs or HIV infection. Certain viruses such as HTLV-1 (Human T Cell Leukemia/ Lymphoma Virus), hepatitis C, and Epstein-Barr virus seem to directly affect the DNA of the lymphocytes and help transform them into cancer cells. Helicobacter pylori, a type of bacteria known to precipitate stomach ulcers causes chronic immune system stimulation and has been associated with Mucosa Associated Lymphoid Tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the stomach. Although NHL can affect all age groups, the chance of developing this disease increases with age.

Symptoms They may vary depending on the location of the tumour in the body. The most common symptoms are enlarged painless lymph nodes in the armpit, neck or in the groin. Others include fever, night sweats, weight loss, breathlessness and abdominal distention. Diagnosis A biopsy of the tumour is the only way to confirm NHL. Excisional or incisional biopsy of the tumour is usually done if a lymphoma is suspected. A needle biopsy (FNA) is usually not preferred, as it might not draw an adequate sample to make a definite diagnosis. A bone marrow aspiration and biopsy is usually done not to confirm the diagnosis but to stage the disease. It helps to determine if the disease has infiltrated the bone marrow. Biopsy samples are sent for histopathological examination. Other tests like immunohistochemistry, now cytometry and cytogenetics are essential to establish a definite diagnosis. Immunohistochemistry is the method by which we can examine the cells and determine what antigens are expressed on the surface of the cells by using antibodies that bind to those antigens. We can also determine how Stem cells removed from donor strongly those antigens are expressed. This will help determine the type of lymphoma with a far greater accuracy, which will aid the treating physician to decide on appropriate treatment and management. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) testing is used to look for specific changes in a chromosome such as trans-location and to visualise specific genes or portion of genes aiming at a more accurate diagnosis. Imaging studies like CT scan, Gallium scan and PET scan are useful tools in detecting and monitoring the disease. One must understand that none of these scans can diagnose NHL without histopathological evidence.

Treatment In recent years, there has been much progress in treating non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The treatment options for people with NHL depend on the type and its stage, as well as the other prognostic factors of the disease. One of the most common combinations of drugs used in chemotherapy is called CHOP. This includes the drugs cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine (oncovin) and prednisolone. Another common combination leaves out doxorubicin and is called CVP. Antibodies are proteins made by the body's immune system to help fight infections. Monoclonal antibodies are man-made substitutes designed to attack a specific target, on the surface of lymphocytes. Several monoclonal antibodies are being used now to treat NHL: * Rituximab is an antibody that attaches to a substance called CD20 found on some types of lymphoma cells. * Alemtuzumab is an antibody directed at the CD52 antigen and used for some types of peripheral T cell lymphomas. * Ofatumubab is another monoclonal antibody that targets CD 20 antigen and is used mainly when chemotherapy, rituximab and alemtuzumab do not work. http://www.medworldindia.com/CancerTreatment/BloodCan cerTreatment.htm

Stem cell transplants are sometimes used to treat lymphoma patients who are in remission or who have a relapse during or after treatment. These are of two types: * Allogeneic stem cell transplant: The stem cells come from someone else. The donor's tissue type (also known as the HLA type) should be almost identical to the patient's tissue type to help prevent the risk of major problems with the transplant. The stem cells are usually collected from the bone marrow, peripheral blood or umbilical cord blood. * Autologous stem cell transplant: The patient's own stem cells are removed from his or her bone marrow or peripheral blood on several occasions. The cells are frozen and stored while the person gets treatment (high-dose chemotherapy and/or radiation), and are then reinfused into the patient's blood. Outcome and prognosis Traditionally the outcome is dependent on the stage of the disease the patient is diagnosed with. There are various methods to prognosticate the outcome. One of the popular methods to predict the outcome is called the International Prognostic Index (I PI). Cure is possible With modern advances in diagnosis, imaging studies and availability of targeted drugs, the outlook for patients diagnosed with non-Hodgkin lymphoma has improved tremendously. The patients respond well to treatment and cure rates have increased significantly. More and more patients are cured of the disease forever, and many others are achieving long-term survival.

MedWorld India offer free, no obligation assistance to international patients to find world class medical treatment in India. A large number of people from all over the world are now traveling to India for top class medical treatment like Heart Surgery, Cancer Care, Spinal fusion surgery in India, sleeve gastrectomy surgery in India, and other major surgeries. India offers an unmatched cost and quality advantages because it has world class hospitals and globally trained and experienced surgeons across every specialty. Whether you are considering cervical disk replacement surgery, brain tumor surgery in India, heart valve replacement surgery, or prostate cancer treatment in India, we offer support and services to facilitate the care you require. We can help you find the best heart hospital in India, IVF hospital in India, or best cancer hospital in India. The First step is to email your Medical Reports to us for an opinion from leading doctors in India. We will send you an expert medical opinion and estimate for the cost of your treatment from at least three leading hospitals in India. Once you decide, we help you schedule appointments, apply for a medical Visa and make the arrangements for your stay. MedWorld India has a team of dedicated doctors who personally attend to all your queries. We are the only facilitators that appoint a personal doctor to the patient from the time of enquiry till the time the patient fully recovers. Your personal doctor will stay in constant contact with you, your local doctor and your medical team in India throughout your stay, and will relay information back to your loved ones. From initial registration of interest, to returning the patient back to his or her home country after the procedure and recuperation, MedWorld India will ensure the whole process is as smooth and stress-free as possible for its patients. We believe that timely, affordable and quality medical treatment is every human beings right. We are dedicated to this cause and strive to deliver the benefit and pleasure of medical care to people across the globe. Our mission at MedWorld India is simple. We want to help you to safely and successfully receive your medical procedure(s) at a world-class healthcare facility for a fraction of the cost elsewhere.

Advantages of MedWorld India  Top Quality Healthcare services at Low cost  Save up to 60-80% on medical costs  Highly Qualified Physicians/Surgeons and Hospital support staff  Get free Opinion - No charge for consultation  Guide you to select the Best Hospital and Doctor for your procedure.  Make all your arrangements for travel For more information visit: http://www.medworldindia.com https://www.facebook.com/medworld.india Please scan and email your medical reports to us at care@medworldindia.com and we shall get you a Free Medical Opinion from India’s Best Doctors. Call Us : +91-9811058159 Mail Us : care@medworldindia.com http://www.medworldindia.com/CancerTreatment/BloodCan cerTreatment.htm

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