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Published on February 7, 2008

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Promoting Healthy Eating and Physical Activity During the Toddler and Preschool Years : Copyright 2007. Dietitians of Canada. All rights reserved. Permission to reprint in its entirety. For non-commercial use only. Updated 2007. Promoting Healthy Eating and Physical Activity During the Toddler and Preschool Years Course for Parents and Child Care Providers Topic 3: Meal Planning for Preschoolers  Meal Planning for Preschoolers   : Copyright 2007. Dietitians of Canada. All rights reserved. Permission to reprint in its entirety. For non-commercial use only. Updated 2007. Meal Planning for Preschoolers At the end of this presentation, you will have a greater understanding of: How to plan healthy meals and snacks based on Canada’s Food Guide. Foods that can cause choking in preschoolers. Snacking and dental health. Planning meals and nutrients of concern for vegetarian preschoolers. Food allergies and food intolerances. Food safety and preventing foodborne illness. Pre-test   : Copyright 2007. Dietitians of Canada. All rights reserved. Permission to reprint in its entirety. For non-commercial use only. Updated 2007. Pre-test Use this quiz to test your knowledge of meal planning for preschoolers. Answers will be provided throughout the lesson. You’ll have the opportunity to take the quiz again at the end of the lesson. Menu plans should be posted or available at day care to let parents know what their child eats. True/False A balanced meal consists of food from how many food groups? a) 1, b) 2, c) 3 or 4 Which foods can cause choking in children under the age of 3? Grapes/Hot dogs/Peanut butter Raisins and dried fruit make a good snack. True/False Vegetarian diets are not appropriate for preschoolers. True/False Food poisoning is only a concern if you eat at a restaurant. True/False Who should plan a menu?   : Copyright 2007. Dietitians of Canada. All rights reserved. Permission to reprint in its entirety. For non-commercial use only. Updated 2007. Who should plan a menu? Menu planning is a “must” for individuals and organizations providing child care but is also recommended for parents at home. If possible, child care providers should post the menu plan in a visible place or have copies available for parents. This will help parents plan menus at home to complement their child's day care meals. Tip: Parents and child care providers share the responsibility of helping children eat well and should both be involved in meal planning. Why should I plan a menu?   : Copyright 2007. Dietitians of Canada. All rights reserved. Permission to reprint in its entirety. For non-commercial use only. Updated 2007. Why should I plan a menu? To provide healthy meals that are well spaced throughout the day. To reduce repetition of meals. To get organized, plan your shopping list and avoid last minute trips to the store or fast food restaurant. To save time and let you know when to prepare foods ahead of time.  How does menu planning benefit preschoolers?   : Copyright 2007. Dietitians of Canada. All rights reserved. Permission to reprint in its entirety. For non-commercial use only. Updated 2007. How does menu planning benefit preschoolers? ensures preschoolers get a variety of different foods and nutrients provides preschoolers with the security and comfort of regular meals and snacks provides preschoolers with meals they will enjoy helps provide meals that contribute to healthy growth and development and a healthy weight Resource: Healthy Start For Life - Eating Well Together Meal Planner <www.dietitians.ca/healthystart/Healthy_Eating_Meal_Planner.pdf> What do preschoolers like to eat?   : Copyright 2007. Dietitians of Canada. All rights reserved. Permission to reprint in its entirety. For non-commercial use only. Updated 2007. What do preschoolers like to eat? Simple foods that are easy to eat and suited to their cultural and personal preferences. Foods served separately on a plate instead of mixed dishes. Finger foods and small portion sizes. Foods presented in fun and interesting ways e.g. different colours, shapes, and flavours. What else should I keep in mind?   : Copyright 2007. Dietitians of Canada. All rights reserved. Permission to reprint in its entirety. For non-commercial use only. Updated 2007. What else should I keep in mind? Introduce "new" foods in small amounts. Be careful serving foods that can cause choking such as peanuts, nuts, seeds, hot dogs, grapes, raw vegetables, and hard candies, especially for children under 3 years of age. Avoid foods that could be risky if allergic children are present (e.g. peanut butter, nuts, shellfish and other allergy causing foods). Provide nutritious snacks that won’t harm their teeth. Limit juice to 125 – 175 mL (4-6 oz) per day as part of a meal or snack. Resource: What should a toddler or preschooler eat? <www.dietitians.ca/healthystart/content/resources/faq_2.asp> To prevent choking…   : Copyright 2007. Dietitians of Canada. All rights reserved. Permission to reprint in its entirety. For non-commercial use only. Updated 2007. To prevent choking… Avoid round and cylinder-shaped foods for children under the age of 3. Risky foods include peanuts, nuts, seeds, hot dogs, grapes, hard candy, popcorn, or raw carrot pieces. Peanut butter (especially chunky) and toffee candies can also be difficult to swallow. Make these foods safer for preschoolers by: cutting wieners/sausages lengthwise into strips, then cut into bite-size pieces; removing pits, seeds and peels from fruit and cut into bite-size pieces; cut grapes in half; cutting raw vegetables into narrow strips or grate; spreading smooth peanut butter thinly on crackers or bread. Supervise children while eating and make sure they are sitting down and not laughing or jumping while eating. What is the difference between a food allergy and intolerance?   : Copyright 2007. Dietitians of Canada. All rights reserved. Permission to reprint in its entirety. For non-commercial use only. Updated 2007. What is the difference between a food allergy and intolerance? A food allergy is caused by an immune reaction to certain foods (e.g. nuts, shellfish, milk, eggs, etc.). Symptoms of an allergic reaction include skin rashes or hives, swollen tongue and lips, vomiting, wheezing, stomach cramps, nausea, diarrhea and difficulty breathing. Reactions can be very quick and life threatening. This is called an anaphylactic reaction. A food intolerance is when a child cannot absorb or digest nutrients properly (e.g. lactose intolerance). Symptoms include stomach ache, bloating, gas, or diarrhea. Children with food allergies or intolerances will need to avoid certain foods. This could put them at risk for nutrient deficiencies. It’s best to discuss this child’s diet with your family doctor or a registered dietitian. Resources: Food allergies and intolerances <www.caringforkids.cps.ca/eating/FoodAllergies.htm> Find a Dietitian <www.dietitians.ca/find/index.html> How can you help keep children with allergies safe?   : Copyright 2007. Dietitians of Canada. All rights reserved. Permission to reprint in its entirety. For non-commercial use only. Updated 2007. How can you help keep children with allergies safe? Pay special attention when planning meals for children with food allergies or intolerances. The most common allergies are to nuts, shellfish, fish, eggs, and milk. Peanut butter, nuts and shellfish are particularly concerning because very small amounts can cause a severe reaction and potential death within minutes in an allergic child. Avoid preparing and serving allergen containing foods such as peanut butter, nuts and shellfish in homes or day cares with an allergic child present. Learn how to deal with an allergic reaction. Children with severe allergies should have an epi-pen with them ALL THE TIME. Day care staff and family members should all be trained to use it. Resource: Anaphylaxis Canada <www.anaphylaxis.ca> What about snacking and dental health?   : Copyright 2007. Dietitians of Canada. All rights reserved. Permission to reprint in its entirety. For non-commercial use only. Updated 2007. What about snacking and dental health? Preschoolers need to eat small, frequent meals throughout the day because they have small stomachs and high energy needs. Offer snacks 1 – 2 hours before meals so they don’t interfere with meals. Snacks should include nutritious foods from at least 2 of the 4 food groups. Sticky, sweet foods such as dried fruit and candy can cause cavities and should be avoided as snacks unless children can brush their teeth right after. Avoid day-long nibbling on food or sipping on beverages as this can cause cavities. What are nutrient-packed snacks?   : Copyright 2007. Dietitians of Canada. All rights reserved. Permission to reprint in its entirety. For non-commercial use only. Updated 2007. What are nutrient-packed snacks? Whole grain bread, buns, bagels, pita, tortillas Bran, oatmeal, corn or whole grain muffins Bread sticks or whole grain crackers Whole grain, low-sugar cereals Fruit, fruit salad and individual serving containers of fruit or unsweetened applesauce Juice popsicles Unsweetened fruit juice instead of fruit drinks Raw vegetables, vegetable juice Milk, fortified soy beverages, yogurt, cheese, milk-based pudding Cheese Peanut butter (unless children with allergies are present) Pizza What does a healthy meal look like?   : Copyright 2007. Dietitians of Canada. All rights reserved. Permission to reprint in its entirety. For non-commercial use only. Updated 2007. What does a healthy meal look like? Includes foods from at least 3 of the 4 food groups Uses child size-servings Balances higher fat choices with plenty of lower fat vegetables and fruit Uses a variety of colours, flavours and shapes Resources: What should a toddler or preschooler eat? <www.dietitians.ca/healthystart/content/resources/faq_2.asp> Eating Well with Canada’s Food Guide <http://www.healthcanada.gc.ca/foodguide> Sample Breakfast Meal   : Copyright 2007. Dietitians of Canada. All rights reserved. Permission to reprint in its entirety. For non-commercial use only. Updated 2007. Sample Breakfast Meal Sample Lunch Meal   : Copyright 2007. Dietitians of Canada. All rights reserved. Permission to reprint in its entirety. For non-commercial use only. Updated 2007. Sample Lunch Meal Sample Supper Meal   : Copyright 2007. Dietitians of Canada. All rights reserved. Permission to reprint in its entirety. For non-commercial use only. Updated 2007. Sample Supper Meal Sample Snacks   : Copyright 2007. Dietitians of Canada. All rights reserved. Permission to reprint in its entirety. For non-commercial use only. Updated 2007. Sample Snacks Are vegetarian diets okay for preschoolers?   : Copyright 2007. Dietitians of Canada. All rights reserved. Permission to reprint in its entirety. For non-commercial use only. Updated 2007. Are vegetarian diets okay for preschoolers? Yes, only if they provide enough energy (calories), protein, iron, calcium, vitamin D, vitamin B12 and riboflavin. Yes, if they include foods from each of the four food groups. For example, instead of meat have tofu, cooked beans, peas and lentils, nuts and nut butters. Yes, if they consume milk products or fortified soy beverages to get calcium and vitamin D. Maybe not, if they follow a strict vegan diet (i.e. no milk, eggs or other animal products). They may be lacking calcium, vitamin D and vitamin B12. If you need help planning a balanced vegetarian diet for preschoolers contact a registered dietitian. Resources: Vegetarian Position Paper - Dietitians of Canada <www.dietitians.ca/news/downloads/vegetarian_position_paper_2003.pdf> Find a Dietitian <www.dietitians.ca/find/index.html> Should you be concerned about food safety?   : Copyright 2007. Dietitians of Canada. All rights reserved. Permission to reprint in its entirety. For non-commercial use only. Updated 2007. Should you be concerned about food safety? Definitely! Young children and older folks are more at risk of getting sick from contaminated food than adults. Foodborne illness or food poisoning occurs when a person gets sick by eating food that contains harmful bacteria, parasites or viruses. This can happen with foods prepared at home or away from home. When preparing meals for preschoolers, whether for home or child care, it’s very important to use safe food handling practices. For example, wash hands after using the bathroom and before touching foods. Avoid preparing or serving food if you have a cold, flu or other illness or infection. Food safety in 4 simple steps   : Copyright 2007. Dietitians of Canada. All rights reserved. Permission to reprint in its entirety. For non-commercial use only. Updated 2007. Food safety in 4 simple steps CleanWash hands, utensils and surfaces with hot soapy water before, during and after preparing foods. Sanitize countertops, cutting boards and utensils with a mild bleach and water solution. Wash all produce thoroughly before eating or cooking. SeparateKeep raw meats and poultry away from other foods during storage and preparation. Keep separate cutting boards for raw meats and vegetables. Always keep foods covered. CookCook food thoroughly -- cooking times and temperatures vary for different meat and poultry. Prepare foods quickly, and serve immediately so foods don't linger at room temperatures where bacteria can grow. ChillRefrigerate or freeze perishables, prepared food and leftovers within two hours. Make sure the refrigerator is set at a temperature of 4°C (40°F), and keep the freezer at -18°C (0°F). Reference: Canadian Partnership for Consumer Food Safety Education <www.canfightbac.org/en/> Make healthy eating happen with a plan…   : Copyright 2007. Dietitians of Canada. All rights reserved. Permission to reprint in its entirety. For non-commercial use only. Updated 2007. Make healthy eating happen with a plan… Use the Healthy Start for Life: Healthy Eating Well Together Meal Planner: To plan a weeks worth of healthy meals and snacks To see if you have reached your goal of helping your preschoolers eat well each and every day. Remember: Parents and child care providers share the responsibility of helping children eat well and should all be involved in meal planning and enjoying meals with their children. Resources: Healthy Start for Life – Eating Well Together Meal Planner <www.dietitians.ca/healthystart/Healthy_Eating_Meal_Planner.pdf> Healthy Start for Life – FAQs <www.dietitians.ca/healthystart/content/resources/faqs.asp> Post-test   : Copyright 2007. Dietitians of Canada. All rights reserved. Permission to reprint in its entirety. For non-commercial use only. Updated 2007. Post-test Try this quiz again to see if your nutrition knowledge has improved. Check your answers on the following slide. Menu plans should be posted or available at day care to let parents know what their child eats. True/False A balanced meal consists of food from how many food groups? a) 1, b) 2, c) 3 or 4 Which foods can cause choking in children under the age of 3? Grapes/Hot dogs/Peanut butter Raisins and dried fruit make a good snack. True/False Vegetarian diets are not appropriate for preschoolers. True/False Food poisoning is only a concern if you eat at a restaurant. True/False How did you score?   : Copyright 2007. Dietitians of Canada. All rights reserved. Permission to reprint in its entirety. For non-commercial use only. Updated 2007. How did you score? Menu plans should be posted or available at day care to let parents know what their child eats. True A meal consists of food from at least how many food groups? c) 3 or 4 Which foods can cause choking in children under the age of 3? Grapes/Hot dogs/Peanut butter can all cause choking Raisins and dried fruit makes a good snack. False – dried fruit sticks to the teeth and can cause cavities – serve with meals or brush teeth after eating. Vegetarian diets are not appropriate for preschoolers. False – well planned vegetarian diets which satisfy nutrient needs of preschoolers are okay. Food poisoning is only a concern if you eat at a restaurant. False – food poisoning can happen at home or anywhere food is prepared. For more information   : Copyright 2007. Dietitians of Canada. All rights reserved. Permission to reprint in its entirety. For non-commercial use only. Updated 2007. For more information For more resources to promote healthy eating and active living among preschoolers visit the Healthy Start For Life partnership website at www.dietitians.ca/healthystart You can also search for resources using the Online Interactive Resource Inventory at www.dietitians.ca/healthystart/frm_resource/frm_resource.asp?fn=searchform Acknowledgements   : Copyright 2007. Dietitians of Canada. All rights reserved. Permission to reprint in its entirety. For non-commercial use only. Updated 2007. Acknowledgements Michele Grant, Canadian Child Care Federation www.cccf-fcsge.ca/ Dr. Budimka Oroz, Canadian Institute of Child Health www.cich.ca Dr. Panagiota Klentrou, Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology www.csep.ca Carol Harrison/Amy Farrier, Dairy Farmers of Canada - Ontario www.nutritionthatworks.org/ Lynda Corby, Dietitians of Canada www.dietitians.ca Janet Schlenker, DC Pediatric Nutrition Network www.dietitians.ca Lee Rysdale, NutriSTEP Project – Sudbury & District Health Unit www.sdhu.com/ Colleen Logue, Nutrition Resource Centre – Ontario Public Health Association www.nutritionrc.ca Dr. Bill Mackie, The College of Family Physicians of Canada www.cfpc.ca/ Lorrie Huggins, YMCA of Greater Toronto www.ymcatoronto.org Solange Lamont, RD – French Content Advisor Lynn Roblin, Healthy Start for Life Project Coordinator, Marketlink Solutions www.marketlinksolutions.com Healthy Start for Life is sponsored by Dietitians of Canada. This project was established through funding provided by Health Canada’s Population Health Fund. The views expressed in this course are not necessarily those of Health Canada. CERTIFICATE OF ACHIEVEMENT: Copyright 2007. Dietitians of Canada. All rights reserved. Permission to reprint in its entirety. For non-commercial use only. Updated 2007. CERTIFICATE OF ACHIEVEMENT Promoting Healthy Eating and Physical Activity During the Toddler and Preschool Years Course. This certificate recognizes that _________________________has completed Topic 3: Meal Planning for Preschoolers. This course has been designed to help parents, caregivers, child care workers and health intermediaries learn more about the nutrition and physical activity needs of preschoolers. It also provides activities and strategies, which will help encourage preschoolers to eat well and keep active. Healthy Start for Life is sponsored by Dietitians of Canada. This project was established through funding provided by Health Canada’s Population Health Fund. The views expressed in this course are not necessarily those of Health Canada.

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