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Lesson11

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Information about Lesson11
Education

Published on January 22, 2008

Author: Monica

Source: authorstream.com

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Slide1:  Earth :rocks and minerals Earth Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Fill a liter (1000 ml) beaker with water. This represents all the water on Earth. Where is most of the water located? Pour 26 ml of the water into a 100 ml graduated cylinder. This represents Earth’s fresh water, about 2.6% of the total water. Put salt into the remaining 974 ml to represent the water found in the oceans or 97.41%. Would this water be useable for human consumption? Pour 6 ml of fresh water (of the 26 ml) into a 10 ml graduated cylinder or Petri dish. Place the remaining 20 ml in an ice bucket. The 20 ml or about 80% of the fresh water is frozen in ice caps and glaciers. Engagement Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Engagement The 5 ml of water in the 10 ml graduated cylinder represents the non-frozen fresh water. Only about 1.5 ml of this water is surface water; the rest is underground. Use an eyedropper to remove one single drop of water (0.003 ml). Release this one drop into the metal can. This drop represents the clean, fresh water that is not polluted and is available for use. Why must this drop be managed properly? Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Exploration 1 This single drop actually represents a large volume of water on Earth. If all the fresh clean water on Earth were distributed equally among 5 billion people, there would be 2.18 million gallons or 8.4 million liters per person. However, for some, water may appear to be plentiful while for others it is scarce. Why? (Geography, climate, and weather affect its distribution). Availability of water is also affected by agriculture, industry, and domestic use. Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Exploration 1 Write the numbers from 1-12 or 15 on a piece of paper or index card. Imagine you are shrinking to the size of a water molecule. As a water molecule, move through the water cycle on Earth today. As a water molecule, you can move through the following stations: Glaciers, Soil, Clouds, Rivers, Lakes, Gulf of Mexico, Plants, Animals (includes humans), Ground Water and Water Used by Society. These stations are located around the room (or outside). Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Exploration 1 Record the name of the station at which you start as number 1. Pick and roll the block or die at the station. Next go to the location indicated by the label of the die that is facing up. Move to the new location and record the name of the new location as number 2. Anytime stay is rolled, record the name of that station again as number. Move to the back of the line at that station. Record each location that is moved thru or stayed at for each roll of the dice. The movement from location to location in the water cycle ends when they have reached the assigned number locations. Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Exploration 1 Sketch a landscape that illustrates the ten stations listed above in the water cycle pathway. Add arrows to indicate the pathway as a water molecule based on the order of the locations they visited and recorded. Include the process (evaporation, condensation, precipitation, transpiration, etc.) in the movement from one location to another. Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Exploration 1 Imagine you are a water molecule. Use the diagram to write a narrative of the travels of a water molecule through the water cycle. What does it feel like traveling from one location to another and what processes would the water molecule experience? Include this in the narrative. Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Explanation 1 Water connects all systems. Water is a key part of Earth’s structure and plays a unique role in Earth’s processes. Where is water found? Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Explanation 1 What is the role of the water cycle? What are the pathways of water in the cycle? How are the pathways that water molecules can take alike and how did they differ? Water is constantly moving among the oceans, the atmosphere, the solid Earth, and the biosphere. Explain this statement using the pathways of the water molecule and the Water Cycle Table, Handout 11.1 Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Explanation 1 All the water content of the hydrosphere is about 1.36 billion cubic kilometers or 326 million cubic miles. 97.4 % is stored in the Earth’s oceans 1.984 %, in ice sheets and glaciers 0.592 % is ground water 0.014 % to be divided among lakes, streams, living organisms and the atmosphere 0.007% in lakes 0.0001% in rivers 0.005% is soil moisture 0.0001% in biota 0.001% is atmospheric water vapor. What are some of the limitations of the Water Cycle Model? Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Explanation 1 Water does not remain in each location indefinitely. Water can easily change from one state (solid, liquid, or gas) to another. Use Table 11.1, to determine the state of water in each location? Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Explanation 1 Use Table 11.1, Water Cycle Table and the journey of the water molecule to verify that water is constantly moving among the oceans, the atmosphere, the solid Earth, and the biosphere. Which locations represent each of these? Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Explanation 1 Use the journey of the water molecule and Table 11.1 to explain the main processes in the water cycle. Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 Precipitation that doesn’t sink into the ground or evaporate is surface water. This refers to fresh water. What are the locations of surface water in the water cycle? Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 What is the energy source and force that powers the water cycle? Describe the forces that move the water molecules from one location to another. Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 About 84% of water vapor in the atmosphere comes from the oceans; the rest comes from land areas. On a global scale, the amount of water vapor entering the atmosphere is equal to the amount returning to the Earth’s surface as precipitation. Why do some areas have very little precipitation and others large amounts of precipitation? Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 What causes water scarcity? a dry climate; a drought or period in which precipitation is much lower and evaporation is much higher than normal; desiccation - drying of the soil because of such activities as deforestation and overgrazing of livestock; water stress - low availability of water caused by increasing numbers of people relying on limited levels of runoff. Which of these are results of human activity? Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 What are some ways humans intervene in the water cycle? How is the equilibrium of the water cycle changed? withdrawal of large quantities of fresh water clearing of vegetation changing the watershed and disrupting the natural flow of water modify water quality by adding nutrients and other pollutants. Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 Uses of water vary from one region to another. Use the data in Table 11.2 to create pie graphs illustrating the use of water in the United States and China. Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 How does the water usage differ between the United States and China? What will happen to water usage as population, urbanization, and industrialization grow? How will this impact the water cycle? Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 Water is essential for life—humans must consume 2 1/2 quarts of water to stay healthy. However, modern society requires more. Begin with the time you wake up and until you go to sleep at night, list all the ways you have used water directly. Estimate how many gallons of water you have used? Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 Average U. S. citizen uses 120 gallons per day for domestic chores. Uses 1,700 gallons, when indirect uses of water for agriculture and industry are included., Average U. S. household uses 107,000 gallons of water. United States has the world’s highest per capita use of water. Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 Agricultural and manufactured products that are used require large amounts of water. A dinner including an 8-ounce steak, green beans, salad, ice cream, a roll and a glass of milk uses 2,998 gallons of water to produce. Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 Manufactured products require a large amount of water too. - 1,851 gallons of water to refine a barrel of oil - 39,000 gallons to manufacturing a car - 31 gallons to produce a pound of plastic - 24 gallons to produce a pound of steel - 1000 gallons to make a pound of aluminum - 520 gallons to make a tire Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 List ways that human water use is impacting the water cycle and water as a resource? Global withdrawal rates of surface water are projected to at least double in the next two decades due to increased population growth and economic development. How will this impact the water cycle? Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 The United States has plenty of fresh water, however, it is not evenly distributed. The eastern states, just as east Texas, usually have ample precipitation. The most serious water problems are flooding, occasional urban shortages, and pollution. The western states, just as the west Texas region, have too little water. There is a shortage of runoff caused by low precipitation, high evaporation, and recurring prolonged drought. Water tables in many areas are dropping rapidly as farmers and cities are using water faster than aquifers recharge. Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 Obtain a 1-gallon freezer zip lock plastic bag, masking tape, graduated cylinder, a cup of gravel or sand, and a marker. Place the gravel in the bottom of the freezer bag. Add 500 ml of water to the bag. Seal the bag and make sure the seal is tight and does not leak. Tape the top of the bag to a window. If possible have the bottom of the bag resting on the window ledge. Mark the water line on the bag with a marker. Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 Observe the bag each day for several days. Record the observations. What has happened in the bag? Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 Obtain a plastic 1-gallon aquarium/terrarium, place moist soil on one half of the bottom to make a second model of the water cycle. Plant several small plants in the soil. In the other half, place a plastic or glass container and add water to a depth of 3-5 cm or approximately 500- 800 ml of water. Seal the top of the aquarium/terrarium with a plastic or glass covering. Place the aquarium/terrarium next to a window. If a window is not available, place it close to a light. Observe the aquarium/terrarium each day for several days. Record the observations. What is happening or has happened? Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 Diagram the movement of the water in each of the models. After several days, add 2 drops of food coloring or a very small amount (a pinch) of powdered drink mix (Kool Aid) to the water. Observe what happens over several days. What happened? If the food coloring or Kool Aid represented a pollutant, what happens to pollutants in the water cycle? Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Explanation 2 What processes of the water cycle were present in each model? What was the role of energy or forces in moving the water in the model? How are the models similar and how do they differ from the Earth’s water cycle? If the food coloring or Kool Aid represented a pollutant, what happens to pollutants in water in the water cycle? Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 Obtain a plastic container or stream table, recycled waste materials such as newspapers, plastic bottles, aluminum cans, cups, etc., aluminum foil, spray bottle, and scissors. Use the materials to make a model of a watershed. Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 First, use waste paper, newspaper, plastic bottles, cans, inverted cups, etc. to make the raised areas for mountains and hills. Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 Use aluminum foil to cover the paper, bottles, cups, to form the hills, mountains, and valleys. Make valleys for rivers and streams and add space for the Gulf at one end. The foil will represent the soil or rock that is on the surface. Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 Make a sketch that shows the locations of the mountains, hills, valleys, Gulf, etc. of the watershed model. Use the spray bottle to simulate the rain that falls in the upper part of the tray. Spray the water to represent a slow rainfall. Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 Observe what happens to the water. Draw the path of the water flow in the model on the sketch of the watershed model. This is surface water. What happens? Where did the water go? Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 This is a model of a watershed. Based on the model what is a watershed? Use the watershed model to determine the following: What is the source of water a watershed? Is the rate of water flow the same in all parts of the model? Where is it faster? Slower? Are the streams the same in all parts of the model? What is the effect of a hard downpour or what happens if it rained for a long period of time? How does this affect the rate of flow? What causes flooding in the watershed? What areas are more likely to flood? Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 How would the type of surface (various rock or soil types) in a real watershed affect the water running off the land and into the drainage system? Did any of the water get under the aluminum foil? If so this represents water that infiltrated and percolated below the surface to become groundwater. What type of surface in a real watershed would keep the water from sinking into the ground? Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 Compare your watershed model to a real watershed. How are they alike? How does your model differ from a real watershed? What are the limitations of your model? Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 What is the importance of the watershed to people? What is the geological role of surface water in the watershed? How may the equilibrium of the watershed be upset? How does it reach equilibrium again? Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Explanation 3 A watershed is all of that land or drainage basin from which water, sediment, dissolved substances drain into streams, rivers, and eventually to the sea. It is the entire land area, which delivers water, sediment, and dissolved substances by small streams to a larger stream or river and eventually to the sea. Precipitation that doesn’t sink into the ground or evaporate is surface water. Under the influence of gravity, it becomes runoff when it flows into streams and rivers and eventually into the. Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 Every stream, has a drainage basin. The drainage basin of one stream is separated from the drainage basin of another by an imaginary line called a divide. The divide may be a small ridge between two very small streams or like the continental divide in mountain ranges, which separate enormous drainage basins. Note the drainage basin of the Mississippi River in the United States. Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 The time required for water to reach the sea depends on the velocity of the stream (distance that the water travels in a unit of time). Factors that affect the rate of flow are: gradient (the vertical drop or slope of a stream over a specific distance); shape, size, and roughness of the channel; and the discharge (volume of water flowing past certain point in a specific unit of time). Gradient varies with each stream and along the length of the stream. The steeper the gradient, the more energy there is for stream flow Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 Floods occur when the discharge of a stream becomes so great that it exceeds the capacity of the channel and overflows its banks. are the most common hazard are most destructive of all geologic hazards. are part of the natural behavior of streams. are a result of weather. Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 Human interference can worsen or even cause floods. Flood control measures include: the building of dams and levees and channelization of streams. Problems: are expensive provide false sense of security failure of dams or levees cause flash floods Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 Dams, levees, and channelization measures involve structural solutions that focus on “controlling” a stream or river. These solutions are expensive and give people living in the area a false sense of security. The failure of a dam or levee results in the water behind it being released like a flash flood. Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 Factors that influence the runoff in the drainage basin are steepness of the slopes impermeability of the surface materials intensity of the rainfall and the type and amount of vegetation. Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 The importance of running water to society and people includes: depend on rivers for energy, transportation, irrigation and is dominant erosional and depositional force that has shaped the physical environment. Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 Obtain a copy of the River Basin Map of Texas. Locate the major rivers of Texas. In what ways do the 13 major river basins vary? Why do the river basins differ? In what direction do they flow? Where are the headwaters of the rivers? Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 Place a clear transparency on the River Basin of Map of Texas. Use a marker to outline the state. Select a major river and trace the boundaries of its watershed. (Save the transparency for Exploration 6) Use the data table on the map to determine the length of the river and the square miles of the river basin. Use the rainfall data and the storage (acre ft/square mile) data to determine if there is a relationship. Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 Using the table on the River Basin Map of Texas, which rivers have reservoirs? Use a Texas Highway map or Texas Almanac to locate the reservoirs in each watershed. How have reservoirs impacted the watersheds? Why were the reservoirs constructed? Texas has only one original natural lake—Caddo Lake. Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 Plan and conduct an investigation using your model of the watershed from Exploration 3 to find out what happens when trash (paper, cups, cans, bottles, etc.) enter the watershed. Use pieces of sawdust to represent the trash. Record the results in Table 11. 2. Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 Plan and conduct an investigation using your model of the watershed to find out what happens if a water soluble pollutant enters the watershed. Sprinkle some particles of Kool Aid in different locations on the watershed model to represent the chemical. Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 Use the spray bottle to simulate the rain that falls on the watershed. Record the results in Table 11.2. What are some materials that dissolve in water that Kool Aid mix could represent? Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 Plan and conduct an investigation using your model of the watershed to find out what happens if an insoluble chemical enters the watershed. Select a location to have some corn oil enter the watershed (pouring it in that location). Use the spray bottle to simulate the rain that falls. Record the results in Table 11.2. What are some chemicals that the corn oil might represent? Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 Use the results of the investigations to answer the following questions What is the effect of light versus heavy rainfall on the substances? What is the effect of small amounts of substances that are added to the watershed? Did any of the substance get under the aluminum foil, if so what does this represent and indicate? If the Kool Aid represents pollutants that dissolved in water that enters the watershed of the Gulf of Mexico, where are the pollutants collecting? What is the effect or impact of this? What happens to the pollutants as the water evaporates from the Gulf of Mexico? Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 The Gulf’s watershed covers almost two million square miles. Of this vast area, about 1.6 million square miles are in the United States and Canada. Use handout 11.3, Watershed of the Gulf of Mexico to answer the questions below: What is the Gulf of Mexico Watershed? How many states are part of the Mississippi River drainage? How might human activities in these states impact the Gulf of Mexico? Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 A “Dead Zone” where the oxygen level drops so that there is no longer enough to support forms of marine life begins where the Mississippi drains into the Gulf of Mexico and spreads along the coasts of Louisiana towards Texas. Occurs annually since the 1970’s and has increased in size. It is a result of: geography seasonal weather patterns agricultural practices pollution and changing uses of land in the watershed.: Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 What is the source of the excess nutrients causing the “Dead Zone”? Some occur naturally in the air and soil. Most come from the nitrogen in the fertilizers manure runoff from city streets (animal wastes and lawn fertilizers) sewage industrial wastes Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 Obtain a stopwatch, graduate cylinder, four paper or Styrofoam cups of the same size, three cotton balls, marbles, BB’s, and funnel. Fill one cup with marbles; another with BB’s, another with a mixture of marbles and BB’s. Use a graduated cylinder and measure the amount of water that a full cup will hold. This is the total volume. Use a graduated cylinder to pour water into each cup so it is filled. Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 Record the amount of water required to fill the pore spaces (amount of water poured into the cup) in Table 11.3 in the pore space volume column. To determine the porosity of the materials in each cup, divide the total volume of water the cup held in milliliters by amount of water in milliliters required to fill the cup containing the material. Record this in Table 11.3 as porosity: the percentage of the total volume of the material that consists of pore spaces. Which has the greater porosity or pore space? Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 Pour the water out of each cup. Remove the materials (marbles, BB’s, and marbles and BB’s) and blot them dry with a paper towel so that they can be reused. Use a pencil to punch a small hole through the bottom of three of the cups. Place a wad of cotton over the opening. Fill each cup with the materials: marbles, BB’s, and a mixture of BB’s and marbles. Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 Hold the cup of material over a cup that does not have a hole to catch the water that flows through. Using a stop watch or watch with a second hand to collect the flow for 10 seconds. Add a 100 ml of water to the cup with marbles. Start timing when the water emerges from the bottom of the cup and allow it to flow for 10 seconds. Use a funnel, pour the water collected during the 10 seconds into the graduated cylinder, and record the volume in Table 11.3 Repeat the process for each cup of materials. Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 Determine the rate of flow through each material by dividing the amount of percolated water in milliliters by the time in seconds. The rate of flow is milliliters per second. Record the rate of flow or permeability of each material in Table 11.3. How does the permeability of the materials compare? Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 Groundwater is the water found in the tiny pore spaces and in the narrow joints and cracks of the Earth that are below the surface. Why is groundwater important? What is the source of groundwater? What would happen to the rocks or sediments as water is removed from the pores? Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 Obtain the unknown rocks from Lesson 9 that you identified. Identify the rocks. Place a drop of water on each rock. Which rock types absorb the water drop? Which rocks are more permeable to water? Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 Groundwater is one of the most important and widely available resources. Land surface appears solid, but most is not really solid. It includes countless tiny pore spaces between grains of soil and sediment, plus narrow joints and fractures in bedrock. These spaces add up to a very large volume in which groundwater collects and moves. Groundwater makes up slightly more than 14% of the freshwater. Is largest reservoir of freshwater available to humans. Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 What properties of the subsurface materials determine water storage? porosity permeability Which rocks are permeable? Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 Groundwater is also an important erosional agent. Creates sinkholes, caverns, caves. May keep a stream flowing during periods of limited rainfall. Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 Groundwater is being exploited at an increasing rate. Overuse threatens the supply. The Ogallala aquifer in the Texas Panhandle is one example. In other area, land subsidence is occurring as groundwater is removed faster than it is replaced. Subsidence can cause: damage to structures, including buildings, highways, bridges, water lines, and underground pipelines. increase possibility of flooding Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 Conduct an investigation to determine the porosity and permeability of different types of soils: sand, clay, loam, or a combination. Use the instructions in Exploration 5 as a guide. Conduct an investigation to determine the impact of various materials on the permeability. Use various equal amounts of various materials such as dried leaves, dried grass, crushed rock, or other materials mixed with the soil samples to determine the effect on permeability. Make predictions about the permeability before conducting the experiments. Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 Obtain a clear shoebox or 1 gallon aquarium, modeling or floral clay, play sand, natural colored aquarium gravel, jumbo drinking straw, plastic spray bottle, piece of green felt, powdered cocoa or powdered concentrated drink mix (Kool Aid), red food coloring, 1 bucket of clean water, and small cup to dip water from bucket. To one side of the container(aquarium, shoebox)place the jumbo drinking straw, allowing approximately 1 cm clearance from the bottom of the container. Fasten the straw directly along the side of the container with a piece of tape. This will represent two separate well functions. Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 Pour a layer of the play sand completely covering the bottom of the container, making it approximately 4 cm deep. Pour water into the sand, wetting it completely, but there should be no standing water on top of the sand. Observe how the water is absorbed in the sand, but remains around the sand particles, as it is stored in the ground and ultimately in the aquifer. Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 Flatten the modeling or floral clay (like a pancake) and cover 1/2 half of the sand with the clay. Press the clay against the three sides of the container so that water will not seep through on the three sides. Pour a small amount of water onto the clay. What happens to the water? What does the clay represent? Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 Use the aquarium gravel to form the next layer of the Earth. Place the gravel over the sand and clay, covering the entire container. On the side by the straw, use the gravel to form a high hill that slopes to the opposite end of the container to form a valley. The surface represents a watershed. Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 Pour water on to the gravel until the water in the valley is even with the hill. What happens to the water? What happens in the valley? Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 Place the small piece of green felt on top of the hill. Use a little clay to attach it to the sides of the container. Fill the spray bottle with water and spray it on the hill to simulate rain. Where does the water go? What does this represent? Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 Remove the top of the spray bottle and insert the stem into the straw. Depress the trigger to pump water from the well. What happens? What does the removal of the water with the spray pump represent? Water is removed from the groundwater or aquifer. The water in the lake moves to the aquifer and the water in the lake is lowered. This represents people removing water from the groundwater supply or aquifer. Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 Use powdered drink mix (Kool Aid) or cocoa; sprinkle some on top of the hill. This represents improper use of lawn chemicals or fertilizers, etc. Use the spray bottle with water and spray it on top of the hill. What happens? What substances might the Kool Aid or cocoa represent? Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 Remove the top of the spray bottle and insert the stem into the straw. Depress the trigger to pump water from the well. What happens to the “chemicals” in the water? Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 Use food coloring (use a different color than the powdered drink mix) and put a few drops into the straw. Old wells are often used to dispose of chemicals, trash, and other wastes. What happens? Observe the contaminated well again after five minutes. What has happened? Remove the top of the spray bottle and insert the stem into the straw depress the trigger to pump water from the well. What happens? Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 How is the model like a real aquifer? How does it differ? What are some limitations of the model? Explain the relationship between surface water and groundwater. How can it become contaminated? What steps could they take as a household to prevent water pollution? Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 What are aquifers? What is the importance of aquifers? What is a recharge zone? Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 What are aquifers? They are the porous, water-saturated layers of sand, gravel, or bedrock through which groundwater flows. What is the importance of aquifers? In the United States, aquifers are the source of about half of the drinking water (96% in rural areas and 20% in urban areas) 40% of the irrigation water is pumped from aquifers. for more than 90% of the people in 6 states is the source for drinking water What is a recharge zone? It is the area of land through which water passes downward or laterally into the aquifer. Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 How do aquifers get their water? Aquifers are replenished naturally by precipitation that percolates downward through the soil and rock in what is called a natural recharge. Some water may enter from the side, which is lateral recharge. Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 How does groundwater move through the water cycle? Groundwater moves from the recharge area through an aquifer and out to a discharge area – well, lake, spring, stream, geyser, or ocean as part of the hydrologic cycle. In what direction does groundwater move through the water cycle? Groundwater normally moves from points of high elevation and pressure to points of low elevation and pressure. This movement is quite slow, generally only a meter or so (about 3 feet) per year and rarely more than 0.3 meter (1 foot) per day. Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 How is the equilibrium of the relationship between the surface water and groundwater changed? What happens when more water is removed from the aquifer than is returned through recharge? Overuse of groundwater can cause or intensity aquifer depletion and aquifer subsidence – sinking of the land when groundwater is withdrawn. Currently groundwater in the United States is being withdrawn at four times its replacement rate. Some aquifers get very little (if any) recharge. Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 What can be done to prevent depletion of an aquifer? Ways to slow ground water depletion include: controlling population growth, water conservation efforts, not planting water-thirsty crops in dry areas, developing crop strains that require less water and are more resistant to heat stress, wasting less irrigation water, pumping restrictions, improved irrigation efficiency, and moisture-saving farming practices can help. Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 What is the impact of groundwater depletion on a watershed and stream flow? Groundwater is the source of 40% of the stream flow in the United States so as groundwater is depleted it also robs streams of water. Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 What happens when freshwater from an aquifer near a coast is withdrawn faster than it is recharged? Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 What happens when freshwater from an aquifer near a coast is withdrawn faster than it is recharged? This can result in saltwater intrusion into the aquifer. This can irreversibly contaminate the water in the aquifer. The aquifer will no longer be a source of freshwater. Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 How does contamination of the groundwater occur? Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 How does contamination of the groundwater occur? Contamination of the groundwater supply is a major problem. Sources include: sewage from the increasing number of septic tanks farm wastes inadequate or broken sewer systems highway salt fertilizers pesticides chemical leaks from pipelines, storage tanks, landfills, and holding ponds non-point source pollution (is of unknown origin) Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 Non-point source pollution or NSP is pollution of unknown origin that ends up in the watershed. In the past 20 years, NSP pollution has become the leading cause of pollution in lakes, rivers, coastal waters and underground sources of drinking water. These pollutants include: spots of toxic oil that leaks from cars on to driveways, streets, and parking lots; fertilizers used on lawns and gardens; herbicides and pesticides used around homes, yard clippings, pet wastes. Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 Groundwater movement is so slow which means polluted water may go undetected for a long time. most contamination is only discovered after drinking water is affected and people become ill. by then a large area of the groundwater may already be polluted. solutions to groundwater pollution are very few. most effective method is to prevent contamination. Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 Obtain the Aquifers of Texas Map, Land-Resource Map of Texas and the River Basin Map of Texas. Locate the major aquifers - Ogallala, Gulf Coast, Carrizo-Wilcox, Edwards, and Trinity. Use the Land-Resource Map of Texas to determine the composition of each aquifer. In which aquifers is contamination a major concern? Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 Use the River Basin Map of Texas and note the amount of yearly rainfall that would replenish the aquifer or parts of an aquifer. Which aquifers are not being replenished as rapidly as water is being withdrawn? Which aquifers are in population and industrial growth areas where more water is being withdrawn? In which aquifers can saltwater intrusion be a problem? Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 Obtain the River Basin Map of Texas, Aquifers of Texas, Land-Resource Map of Texas, a clear transparency and a black marker. Place a clear transparency on the River Basin Map of Texas; mark the state outline so that it can be placed over the other maps. Use the black marker to trace the boundary of a selected watershed. Use a blue marker to trace the path of the streams and rivers of the watershed. Note the size of the watershed. Place the transparency with the outline on the Aquifers of Texas map. Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 Which aquifers do the river basin or watershed cover? Determine the water quality of the watershed, check the Texas Clean Rivers website or Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission website – www.tnrcc.state.tx.us/water/quality Check the website for information on the Non-point-source pollution (NSP). To determine possible sources, use the Texas Highway map and Texas Almanac to determine the population centers, agricultural areas and industry that are likely sources of pollution. Use the Land-Resource Map of Texas to determine what might be mined that could impact the quality of water in the watershed and aquifers. Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 Obtain a clear plastic cup, sand, sugar cubes, wood glue (must not be water soluble), nail, warm water, and bowl. Pour 2 to 3 cm of sand into the bottom of the cup. Place a layer of sugar cubes on top of the sand. Add the wood clue over the cubes and spaces between the sugar cubes. Continue adding layers of sugar cubes and glue until the cup is almost full. Allow the cup to set until the glue is dry (1-3 days) Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 When the glue is dry, add a layer of sand on the top. Use a nail, to poke a hole in the bottom of the cup. Set the cup in a bowl. What does the material in the cup represent? Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 Pour several cups of warm water over the “rock” layer. What happens? What happens to the sand on the surface? Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 How is this like the formation of a cave? What are the limitations of the model of cave and sinkhole formation? How are caves formed? Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 Groundwater dissolves rock. Limestone is nearly insoluble in pure water, but is easily dissolved by water containing carbonic acid. Most natural water is contains this weak acid because rainwater dissolves the carbon dioxide from the air and from decaying plants to form carbonic acid. When ground water with carbonic acid comes into contact with the limestone, the carbonic acid reacts with the calcite in the rocks to form calcium bicarbonate. It is soluble in water and is then carried away in solution. Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 Obtain the Physiographic Map of Texas. In what locations is limestone found? Are there caves and sinks in these locations? Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 Identify the processes involved in moving water through the hydrologic cycle. Once precipitation has fallen on land, what paths can it take? What is the energy source that powers the water cycle? Identify at least four specific examples of interactions between humans and the water cycle. Briefly describe the consequences of each of these interactions. What is the impact of population, urbanization, and industrialization on the water cycle and usage? Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 What is a watershed? What is the geological role of water in the watershed? In aquifers? What is the impact of human activity on the watershed? Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle:  Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle Elaboration 1 How do porosity and permeability differ and what is the relationship of each to groundwater? What is the relationship of surface and groundwater? What types of rocks, etc. would be the best aquifers? Explain. In what ways can ground water become contaminated and how does the slow movement of the groundwater affect this? What is the relationship of the water and rock cycle? How does the water cycle reach equilibrium and what disrupts the equilibrium?

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