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Lesson Learned Capacity Building Phase 1

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Information about Lesson Learned Capacity Building Phase 1

Published on November 22, 2008

Author: farhan.helmy

Source: slideshare.net

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PENINGKATAN KAPASITAS BAPEDALDA : Pengalaman UNEP-ERP/KLH Capacity Building on Spatial Analysis Farhan Helmy Department of Social Engineering School of Decision Science and Technology Tokyo Institute of Technology

PENINGKATAN KAPASITAS BAPEDALDA :

Pengalaman UNEP-ERP/KLH

Capacity Building on Spatial Analysis

Farhan Helmy

Department of Social Engineering

School of Decision Science and Technology

Tokyo Institute of Technology

What do we know of cities? And of urban environments? 1 Bagian

Take any of today's environmental problems faced by the inhabitants of Earth, and its causes and pressures can easily be traced back, directly or indirectly, to urban areas. The forces and processes that constitute 'urban activity' have far-reaching and long-term effects not only on its immediate boundaries, but also on the entire region in which it is positioned. Rethinking Urban Areas

Effects, impacts, shortages etc. Problems, causes, lifestyle issues, consumption patterns There is a clear cyclical link between cities and urban areas on one hand, and global environmental problems on the other … Cause and Effect Cycles

Understanding the Scale of Environmental Problems National/ Global City/ Urban Area Community Household

Need for a New Approach How can we (re)define Cities? Cities as human settlements and population concentrations Cities as centers of economic activity Cities as areas with high quality of life (living and infrastructure) Cities as repositories of knowledge, information and ideas Cities as compact ecosystems There is a clear need for a new, comprehensive and holistic approach

How can we (re)define Cities?

Cities as human settlements and population concentrations

Cities as centers of economic activity

Cities as areas with high quality of life (living and infrastructure)

Cities as repositories of knowledge, information and ideas

Cities as compact ecosystems

Environmental Dimensions of Urban Areas Resources, processes and effects related to flora and fauna, human beings, minerals, water, land, air, etc Resources, processes and effects related to buildings, housing, roads, railways, electricity, water supply, gas etc. Resources, processes and effects related to human activities, education, health, arts and culture, economic and business activities, heritage - urban lifestyles in general.

We should develop a clear urban environmental management framework 2 Bagian

The Urban Environmental Framework - 1/8 Urban Environments Balancing Acts Visioning Action Plans Info Management Knowledge Transfer Sustainability Technology URBAN ENVIRONMENTS Urban Environments pose a challenge for effective distribution and management of global resources

Urban Environments

Balancing Acts

Visioning

Action Plans

Info Management

Knowledge Transfer

Sustainability

Technology

Urban Environments Balancing Acts Visioning Action Plans Info Management Knowledge Transfer Sustainability Technology BALANCING ACTS There is a need to strike a balance between natural and built environments and between ecological and economic objectives. The Urban Environmental Framework - 2/8

Urban Environments

Balancing Acts

Visioning

Action Plans

Info Management

Knowledge Transfer

Sustainability

Technology

Urban Environments Balancing Acts Visioning Action Plans Info Management Knowledge Transfer Sustainability Technology VISIONING There is a need to develop a structure of goals/visions and a methodology to achieve it in order to identify the action that has to be taken. The Urban Environmental Framework - 3/8

Urban Environments

Balancing Acts

Visioning

Action Plans

Info Management

Knowledge Transfer

Sustainability

Technology

Urban Environments Balancing Acts Visioning Action Plans Info Management Knowledge Transfer Sustainability Technology ACTION PLANS Steps need to be taken that are relevant in the short term in order to gain wider acceptability, keeping long term goals in mind. The Urban Environmental Framework - 4/8

Urban Environments

Balancing Acts

Visioning

Action Plans

Info Management

Knowledge Transfer

Sustainability

Technology

Urban Environments Balancing Acts Visioning Action Plans Info Management Knowledge Transfer Sustainability Technology INFORMATION MANAGEMENT Access, sharing and dissemination of information has to be a priority to achieve greater understanding of the issues involved The Urban Environmental Framework - 5/8

Urban Environments

Balancing Acts

Visioning

Action Plans

Info Management

Knowledge Transfer

Sustainability

Technology

Urban Environments Balancing Acts Visioning Action Plans Info Management Knowledge Transfer Sustainability Technology KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER Collaborative efforts in 'knowledge transfer' at the city-to-city level has to be encouraged, particularly between developed and developing cities. The Urban Environmental Framework - 6/8

Urban Environments

Balancing Acts

Visioning

Action Plans

Info Management

Knowledge Transfer

Sustainability

Technology

Urban Environments Balancing Acts Visioning Action Plans Info Management Knowledge Transfer Sustainability Technology SUSTAINABILITY There is a need to understand and enact the concept of sustainable development and sustainable living, in all its varied definitions. The Urban Environmental Framework - 7/8

Urban Environments

Balancing Acts

Visioning

Action Plans

Info Management

Knowledge Transfer

Sustainability

Technology

Urban Environments Balancing Acts Visioning Action Plans Info Management Knowledge Transfer Sustainability Technology TECHNOLOGY Development of new technologies that are clean, green, and practical has to be encouraged and exchanged between local and city governments to combat environmental problems. The Urban Environmental Framework - 8/8

Urban Environments

Balancing Acts

Visioning

Action Plans

Info Management

Knowledge Transfer

Sustainability

Technology

Much of the responsibility for urban environmental management lies with local governments 3 Part

Use global trends to develop the local environment Partnerships need to be developed among all local actors Proactive knowledge transfer to local stakeholders In-depth and intensive scientific research for policy and project development The Environmental Challenge for Local Governments Within the orbit of the civil society!!

Use global trends to develop the local environment

Partnerships need to be developed among all local actors

Proactive knowledge transfer to local stakeholders

In-depth and intensive scientific research for policy and project development

Community Participation The old paradigm of ‘ community participation ’ has now expanded to include many new ones … Expanding Paradigms Informed Consent Public Choice Decision Making Processes Education & Awareness Building Urban Governance Decentralization and Local Autonomy Information Disclosure Capacity Building

Local Governments World Charter on Local Governments LCA and Eco-Labeling Increased Capacity Building and Public administration changes Waste reduction and resource savings E- Tools available to Local Governments Local Agenda 21 Civil society participation and Lifestyle changes Kyoto Protocol Emissions, air pollution etc. Energy saving, natural resource saving, air pollution Urban planning rules and building codes EMS and ISO 14001 Consumption and production changes

Urban Capacity Building Urban Governance … for repackaging cities … for mainstreaming urban management The need of the day ... Urban capacity building is a process that involves value added instruction, the training of trainers, activities with multiplier effects, and networking. It involves both institutional capacity-building, as well as human capacity-building. Urban governance refers to the complex set of values, norms, processes, and institutions by which society manages its development and resolves conflict, formally and informally. It involves the state, but also the civil society.

This is where Environmental Management Systems (EMSs) come in … 4 Part

Key Principles of an Urban EMS Principle 1 - Commitment and policy The local government should define its environmental policy and ensure commitment to its EMS. Principle 2 - Planning The local government should formulate a plan to fulfill its environmental policy. Principle 3 - Implementation For effective implementation the local government needs to develop the capabilities and support mechanisms necessary to achieve its environmental policy and goals. Principle 4 - Measurement and evaluation The local government should measure, monitor and evaluate its environmental performance. Principle 5 - Review and improvement The local government should review and continually improve its EMS.

Principle 1 - Commitment and policy

The local government should define its environmental policy and ensure commitment to its EMS.

Principle 2 - Planning

The local government should formulate a plan to fulfill its environmental policy.

Principle 3 - Implementation

For effective implementation the local government needs to develop the capabilities and support mechanisms necessary to achieve its environmental policy and goals.

Principle 4 - Measurement and evaluation

The local government should measure, monitor and evaluate its environmental performance.

Principle 5 - Review and improvement

The local government should review and continually improve its EMS.

Inspiration from ISO 14001 Environmental Policy Planning Implementation and Operation Checking and Corrective Action Management Review EMS The ISO 14001 Cycle

The GET Matrix Solid Waste Water Energy Transportation Housing … Governance Education Technology Actors and actions Management Systems Urban Components

Governance Education Technology The “ G.E.T.” Formula EMS - capacity building - training - information management - education and awareness - lifestyle changes ... - network infrastructure - urban design - water - energy - waste management - social services ... - institutional frameworks - laws and legislation - monitoring and evaluation - decision-making - role of civil society …

Toolbox of Environmental Action EMS for Cities Provide Control Educate Programme Legislate Maintain Finance

Provide

Control

Educate

Programme

Legislate

Maintain

Finance

External benefits Internal benefits Local Governments Urban Stakeholders (for eg. Developers Businesses Citizens Groups NGOs) In developing an EMS, there are both internal concerns (to the local government) and external concerns (to urban stakeholders)

By putting in place an environmental management system (EMS), cities can effect a substantial saving of everyday resources Cities can cut costs due to the review process that identifies overuse or wasteful utilization. By having a broad EMS in place, it improves staff commitment and morale, highlighting their contribution to 'saving the earth'. The EMS processes calls for a complete review of existing activities and their impacts leading to improved efficiency in operation and better integration in day-to-day activities. Internal Benefits 

By putting in place an environmental management system (EMS), cities can effect a substantial saving of everyday resources

Cities can cut costs due to the review process that identifies overuse or wasteful utilization.

By having a broad EMS in place, it improves staff commitment and morale, highlighting their contribution to 'saving the earth'.

The EMS processes calls for a complete review of existing activities and their impacts leading to improved efficiency in operation and better integration in day-to-day activities.

External Benefits  An EMS demonstrates a city's 'green face' to its residents and also helps in emphasizing the need for greater environmental action on the part of urban stakeholders at the local level. A city's EMS helps in serving as a model for other city and regional governments to emulate and replicate. A city government can, from a position of strength, promote EMS replication in other stakeholders in the city, particularly the private sector It also emphasizes the concept, 'environmental-action-starts-at-home', where local actions at the grassroots have global implications.

An EMS demonstrates a city's 'green face' to its residents and also helps in emphasizing the need for greater environmental action on the part of urban stakeholders at the local level.

A city's EMS helps in serving as a model for other city and regional governments to emulate and replicate.

A city government can, from a position of strength, promote EMS replication in other stakeholders in the city, particularly the private sector

It also emphasizes the concept, 'environmental-action-starts-at-home', where local actions at the grassroots have global implications.

For many cities 'environment' is simply not a priority The benefits of developing an EMS is not clearly understood City governments face several political and/or administrative barriers in effectively implementing the commitment under an EMS Restrictions within the urban planning systems exist in some countries EMSs need financial commitment in order to carry out the action Lack of appropriate and adequate capacity and technologies But there are barriers! 

For many cities 'environment' is simply not a priority

The benefits of developing an EMS is not clearly understood

City governments face several political and/or administrative barriers in effectively implementing the commitment under an EMS

Restrictions within the urban planning systems exist in some countries

EMSs need financial commitment in order to carry out the action

Lack of appropriate and adequate capacity and technologies

Prioritization of environment Emphasis on long-term benefits Illustration of global effects of urban living Demonstration of good practices Raising awareness for the need for action Multi-stakeholder partnerships Prioritized action is needed ! Limitations and Barriers Priority Action

Prioritization of environment

Emphasis on long-term benefits

Illustration of global effects of urban living

Demonstration of good practices

Raising awareness for the need for action

Multi-stakeholder partnerships

So what? How is an EMS actually implemented on the ground?? 5 Part

Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Reduction of energy use Reduction of water use reduction of solid wastes Promotion of recycling green procurement conserving water and clean air appropriate control of chemicals Promotion of Eco-Office Developing an EMS for Cities

Reduction of energy use

Reduction of water use

reduction of solid wastes

Promotion of recycling

green procurement

conserving water and clean air

appropriate control of chemicals

Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 using e-friendly materials using e-friendly equipment accelerate use of recycled materials green public engineering works develop green technology promote greening Promotion of Eco-Projects Developing an EMS for Cities

using e-friendly materials

using e-friendly equipment

accelerate use of recycled materials

green public engineering works

develop green technology

promote greening

Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 set ‘green’ guidelines for public works set ‘green’ guidelines for housing enhance public transportation capacity building apply EMS to the whole city Green City Planning Developing an EMS for Cities

set ‘green’ guidelines for public works

set ‘green’ guidelines for housing

enhance public transportation

capacity building

apply EMS to the whole city

Local Government Offices Model 1: Single Action Takes only one action, such as electricity/water saving or paper recycling … using the “Reduce, Reuse, Recycle” approach Very Common. Many cities in Australia, Europe and USA have implemented such action Examples

Local Government Offices Model 2: ISO 14001 Certification Obtains ISO 14001 certification, but for the city office buildings only involving all departments of the local government. More than 200 local governments in Japan have obtained ISO 14001 Certification. Examples

Local Government Offices Model 3: Utilities Certification Each office obtains ISO 14001 certification separately, and there is no link to local government or between utilities. Water Utility Elec. Utility Gas Utility Trans- portation York, Canada Honolulu, USA Examples

Local Government Offices Model 4: Green Procurement Local governments insist that developers and builders of urban projects, and suppliers of materials have ISO 14001 certification; Developers and builders Material Suppliers Scotsdale, USA Frankfurt, Germany Heidelburg, Germany Examples

Local Government Offices Model 5: Work with Residents Local governments work with groups such as residents, children, youth, women etc. to implement ‘green action’ through an EMS Residents and Citizens Groups Children and school students Minamata, Sendai and Tokyo in Japan Examples

EMS Actions Model 6: Link Environmental Actions EMS is frequently linked to, and used as an implementation strategy, for other environmental initiatives such as Local Agenda 21. Local Agenda 21 Basic Environment Plan Other E-initiatives Hailton-Wentworth, Canada Huddersfield, UK Examples

Model X: The full EMS But a ‘real’ EMS is a combination of all the five models, plus other actions and procedures outlined in the ISO 14001. Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4 Model 5 Model 6 Together, with other actions, is an EMS!! Manningham, Australia Seattle, USA Penang and Kuching, Malaysia Examples

Back to basics … Cities are not the cities that we know … 6 Part

Six Blind Men and the Urban Elephant … of looking at urban areas as having high population and densities, … and failing to see that the people themselves as a resource 1

Six Blind Men and the Urban Elephant … of looking at urban areas as pollution sources and consumption sinks, … and failing to see cities as ‘reservoirs of ideas’ and knowledge. 2

Six Blind Men and the Urban Elephant … of looking at urban areas as administrative units with ‘borders,’ … and failing to see its impacts on the hinterland and even beyond national boundaries. 3

Six Blind Men and the Urban Elephant … of looking at urban areas as breeding grounds for slums, disease and criminal activities, … and failing to see the real causes behind these ‘problems’. 4

Six Blind Men and the Urban Elephant … of looking at urban areas as areas of high ‘quality of life,’ … and failing to see that the real need is for a better lifestyle that is sustainable, equal and fulfilling. 5

Six Blind Men and the Urban Elephant … of looking at urban areas as A PROBLEM! … and failing to see it as A SOLUTION! 6

Continual learning: Keep yourself updated! 7 Part

Website: http://online.ipdf.org/farhan/ Email: [email_address] [email_address]

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