lesson 2 science part 1

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Information about lesson 2 science part 1

Published on October 19, 2008

Author: thomas.procopio

Source: authorstream.com

Lesson 2Part 1 of 2 : Lesson 2Part 1 of 2 Corresponding Quiz - #2 Corresponding Exam - #1 Corresponding Chapter - #2 Lesson 2 Goals : Lesson 2 Goals 1. Understand some basics core principles of the scientific method 2. Comprehend the different “levels of science” 3. To be able to differentiate between the various approaches to sociological research Slide 3: The Scientific Method Sociology and Science Objectivity : Objectivity Max Weber- “value-free” research You should try to keep your own bias (values and beliefs) out of your research. What you think is right/wrong. What you find to be desirable. What you instinctively believe to be true. Don’t prejudge and think you know. Be open to discovery. Don’t let your preconceptions cloud your findings. Different approach than Marx (understand to change-focus is on injustices) Marx makes a value judgment- what ought to be. Is total objectivity possible? (what, why, how) Science : Science Descartes – subjective (unreliable) vs. objective (neutral) Bacon – observable – science is based on the empirical physical world that we can measure. Science : Science A logical system that bases knowledge on direct systematic observation. Science is based on empirical evidence. Something we can verify with our senses The Principle of Falsifiability : The Principle of Falsifiability Science is falsifiable – you have to be able to prove/disprove your ideas my measuring the physical/empirical world. Which Direction? : Which Direction? Deductive Approach- moving from the general to the specific. First comes the idea (theory) and then the data is collected Inductive Approach- moving from the specific to the general. The data is collected first and then a general idea is reached Levels of Science : Levels of Science Kung/Deloria Micro Science – studying the minute (the virtually invisible. Atomic/sub-atomic level. All variables can be controlled and experiments can prove cause and effect. Experimental Variables : Experimental Variables Independent Variable: A variable that an experimenter manipulates. Dependent Variable: A variable than an experimenter predicts will be affected by manipulations of the independent variable. More Vocabulary : More Vocabulary Reliability = consistent results over time and place. Validity = measuring what you are meaning to. Math test – English test Levels of Science : Levels of Science Macro science – examining phenomena on a mass scale (astronomy/astrophysics. From total control of the variables to no control. We can only observe and measure from afar. Levels of Science : Levels of Science Meso science – human size. Social/behavioral science – examine the values, knowledge, activities of people. Experiments are questionable because of mitigating variables and false social situations. You can’t put society in a vacuum. Surveys/interviews may not uncover fact. Meso Science : Meso Science Observation can be a problem Participant – you are a part of and influencing the event Natural – you may still be influencing what is happening. Existing sources – can be colored by values/beliefs/biases Meso Science : Meso Science Humans do not always act in predictable ways (free-will). We are subjective beings and act/react to things accordingly. Post modern – To be objective/neutral is not possible. Especially on the meso level.

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