Lesson 2: Dimensions Of Language

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Information about Lesson 2: Dimensions Of Language

Published on September 26, 2007

Author: bsimoneaux

Source: slideshare.net

Lesson Two Dimensions of Language Neijiang Normal University - Week Two - Brent A. Simoneaux

Name Cards Brent Simoneaux 司马搏 Sima Bo 200505401123

Rhetoric 修辞学 `re-tə-rik (noun) : “ The skill of using language in speech or writing in a special way that influences or persuades people”

Subject Purpose Audience The Writing Triangle

Dimensions of Language Cultural Dimension Syntagmatic Dimension Paradigmatic Dimension

Paradigmatic Dimension Vertical ( 垂直的 ) dimension of language Lexical choices; choices in diction ( 措辞 ) Paradigmatic Dimension

Vertical ( 垂直的 ) dimension of language

Lexical choices; choices in diction ( 措辞 )

Syntagmatic Dimension Horizontal ( 平的 ) dimension of language Choices in syntax ( 造句 ) Syntagmatic Dimension

Horizontal ( 平的 ) dimension of language

Choices in syntax ( 造句 )

Cultural Dimension Readers ’ cultural expectations or assumptions Invisible on paper Cultural Dimension

Readers ’ cultural expectations or assumptions

Invisible on paper

1. Formal Informal 2. Standard Nonstandard 3. General Specific 4. In Group Out Group Word Categories

Formal: I am applying for the receptionist position advertised in the local paper. I am an excellent candidate for the job because of my significant secretarial experience, good language skills, and sense of organization. Formal Informal

Formal: I am applying for the receptionist position advertised in the local paper. I am an excellent candidate for the job because of my significant secretarial experience, good language skills, and sense of organization.

Formal Informal Informal: Hi! I read in the paper that ya'll were looking for a receptionist. I think that I am good for that job because I've done stuff like it in the past, am good with words, and am incredibly well organized.

Informal: Hi! I read in the paper that ya'll were looking for a receptionist. I think that I am good for that job because I've done stuff like it in the past, am good with words, and am incredibly well organized.

Formal: I am applying for the receptionist position advertised in the local paper. I am an excellent candidate for the job because of my significant secretarial experience, good language skills, and sense of organization. Formal Informal Informal: Hi! I read in the paper that ya'll were looking for a receptionist. I think that I am good for that job because I've done stuff like it in the past, am good with words, and am incredibly well organized.

Formal: I am applying for the receptionist position advertised in the local paper. I am an excellent candidate for the job because of my significant secretarial experience, good language skills, and sense of organization.

Formal Formal Informal Informal Correct and effective use of words Academic writing Business letter Job application Email Journal entries Personal letter Narratives Email

Formal

Academic writing

Business letter

Job application

Email

Journal entries

Personal letter

Narratives

Email

Standard Nonstandard Overview Standard refers to common words. Nonstandard refers to slang, jargon, dialectal words, obsolete words, and idiomatic expressions.

Standard Nonstandard Examples Standard Nonstandard am not, is not, has not very good very to play a trick you all ain’t cool damn to pull one’s leg ya’ll

am not, is not, has not

very good

very

to play a trick

you all

ain’t

cool

damn

to pull one’s leg

ya’ll

Standard Standard Nonstandard Nonstandard Correct and effective use of words Closely related to formality Academic writing Business letter Job application Email Written Journal entries Personal letter Narratives Email Spoken

Standard

Academic writing

Business letter

Job application

Email

Written

Journal entries

Personal letter

Narratives

Email

Spoken

General Specific Overview Generality makes reference to words that involve, relate to, or apply to every member of a class, kind or group. Specificity makes reference to words that are encompassed by a more general catergory.

Examples General Specific General Specific animal laugh big scientist tiger, horse, fox chuckle, giggle, roar huge, large, vast physicist, chemist, biologist

animal

laugh

big

scientist

tiger, horse, fox

chuckle, giggle, roar

huge, large, vast

physicist, chemist,

biologist

Correct and effective use of words General Specific General Specific Summary Generalization Description Explanation

Summary

Generalization

Description

Explanation

Jargon ( 行话 ) In Group Out Group Jargon ( 行话 ) is any in-group or specialized language used by small groups of like-minded individuals. This terminology is usually specialized to the function of the group, and will be used by and among group members as a sign of belonging, status, and for keeping out outsiders.

Example In Group Out Group Individuals who study linguistics will use words like quantifier, voiceless labiodental fricative, diglossia, intensifier, minimal pair and metonymy . To non-linguists, these words have different meanings or no meanings at all.

Example In Group Out Group Situation One : If you are writing a paper explaining concepts in linguistics to an audience of non-linguists, you might introduce and explain a few important terms. But you wouldn't use those terms without an explanation or in a way your audience wouldn't understand.

Example In Group Out Group Situation Two : If you are writing a conference paper for a group of linguists or a term paper for a college-level linguistics course, you should use in-group jargon to help show that you understand the concepts and can discuss them in ways other linguists can.

1. Native texts 2. Dictionaries 3. Thesauri ( 类属词典 ) Reference Tools

Next Week Sentence Expansion

The Writing Assignment Write one paragraph in which you describe your future career goals and intellectual interests to the faculty of the English Department. Write another paragraph in which you describe your future career goals and intellectual interests to a Canadian third-year university student. Length : 200 - 300 words total Due at the beginning of next week’s class.

The Reading Assignment Preview Chapter 3, pgs 43-56 for next week’s class

Office Hours Every Tuesday 1:15 – 2:30 pm Building 5, Second Floor

Web site http://njtcwriting.wordpress.com

Web site

Web site

Web site

Radio show Every Thursday 12:30 – 1:30 pm

Turn in your homework .

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