Lesson 2 Ancient Mediterranean Worldmjh

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Published on November 1, 2007

Author: Joshua

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Sea Power in the Ancient Mediterranean World, from the Phoenicians to the Battle of Lepanto (1571) :  Sea Power in the Ancient Mediterranean World, from the Phoenicians to the Battle of Lepanto (1571) NS 2 LT HILER Learning Objectives::  Learning Objectives: To comprehend the importance of sea power and navies to the peoples of the Mediterranean basin during antiquity. Special emphasis will be placed on Crete, the Phoenicians, Persia, Greece, Rome and the Italian city-states of the Middle Ages and early Renaissance To understand the crucial role of the galley in naval warfare up to the Battle of Lepanto (October 1571). Remember our Themes!:  Remember our Themes! The Navy as an Instrument of Foreign Policy Interaction between Congress and the Navy Interservice Relations Technology Leadership Strategy and Tactics Evolution of Naval Doctrine Prospects for future missions of the Navy Mediterranean Sea Power Milestones::  Mediterranean Sea Power Milestones: Crete Develops 1st Navy (2500 – 1200 B.C.) The Phoenicians (2000 – 300 B.C.) develop a seafaring empire Early Greek Sea Power / The Greco-Persian Wars (492 B.C. – 480 B.C.) The Rise and Fall of Roman Sea Power (264 B.C. – c 410 A.D.) Sea Power during and after the Pax Romana (27 B.C. – 1500 A.D.) The Battle of Lepanto (1571) Early Mediterranean Navies:  Early Mediterranean Navies Water transportation was cheaper than overland routes, and especially in the Mediterranean basin. The Mediterranean Sea was the natural locale for much of the war fighting that resulted from commercial and national or ethnic rivalry that characterized antiquity From the outset, commercial or trading vessels were lumbering sailing ships; naval vessels were galleys. Age of Galleys:  Age of Galleys . 2,000 BC until the 16th Century Galley Warfare (The first kind of Naval Warfare):  Galley Warfare (The first kind of Naval Warfare) Need for defense of merchant shipping gives rise to a new type of ship, the galley. No ship to ship destruction from afar Primary Secondary Propulsion Oars Sails Weapons Infantry (Marines) Rams/Projectiles Formation Line-Abreast Not Applicable Principal Functions of Navies::  Command & Control of the Sea 1. Defend against sea-borne attack 2. Isolate the enemy’s land forces 3. Carry the attack across the sea to the enemy Principal Functions of Navies: 1. Protect sea trade routes. 2. Block or disrupt enemy’s sea trade routes. Line Abreast Formations:  Line Abreast Formations Line Abreast Formations:  Line Abreast Formations Line Abreast Formations:  Line Abreast Formations Naval infantry used to board and capture enemy galleys. Use of the Ram:  Use of the Ram Use of the Ram:  Use of the Ram Use of the Ram:  Use of the Ram Rams used to sink or immobilize enemy galleys. Slide18:  Early Naval Powers -Crete -The Phoenicians -The Greeks -The Persians -The Romans Early Naval Powers::  Early Naval Powers: Crete: First maritime-oriented civilization - use of the sea World’s first Navy established (Circa 2,000 BC). Mahanian geographical position Natural resources- copper ore The Phoenicians:  The Phoenicians Greeks and Persians at War (c. 492-480 B.C.):  Greeks and Persians at War (c. 492-480 B.C.) By 5th century B.C., Greeks dominated Black and Aegean Seas and held trading monopoly on eastern Mediterranean. Exported olive, wine, and products of their gifted artisans and craftsmen; Established settlements and colonies as far away as the north shore of the Black Sea and Spain. Chronically weakened by divisions into warring city-states. Persian Empire:  Persian Empire Background of Persia:  Background of Persia Persia, a unified kingdom and empire, overwhelmed Phoenicians, Egyptians and all others in its path The Persians were attempting to expand their massive empire, and by 492 B.C. they faced determined resistance from the Greek city-states to further expansion into Europe. The Persians easily conquered the Phoenicians, who were then conscripted to supply naval power for the advancing Persian armies. The Phoenicians supplied ships, men and shipbuilding facilities. - The Persian advance was effectively an attack on Europe by Asia; the conquering of the Greeks would have effectively eliminated the basis for western civilization as we know it. Three Major Campaigns: :  Three Major Campaigns: 492 BC: Storm destroys Persian fleet. Persians unable to supply their vast army without shipping; 2/3 of Persian Army returns to Persia for the winter 50,000 troops left behind were slaughtered before reinforcements arrived 490 BC: Persians (led by King Darius) also defeated by Athenians at the Battle of Marathon (amphibious invasion) 10,000 Greeks marched from Athens—not bothering to wait for their Spartan allies—and threw Persians back into the sea 480 BC: King Xerxes (Darius’s son) vs. Themistocles - Battles of Thermopylae (won by Persians) and Salamis (won decisively by Greeks) Battle of Marathon:  Battle of Marathon Themistocles:  Themistocles Realized that Marathon was just the beginning of the war with Persia Unless Greece could wrest control of the Aegean sea it was doomed Time and money were available to build a fleet. Battle of Thermopylae -- 480 BC:  Battle of Thermopylae -- 480 BC Battle of Salamis:  Battle of Salamis Battle of Salamis (480 BC):  Battle of Salamis (480 BC) 310 Greek triremes stood against 600 Persian galleys in the constricted bay of the Island of Salamis. Thermistocles used a double agent to trick Xerxes Technology: bronze rams by Greeks to great advantage   Salamis was absolutely decisive and a classically Mahanian sea battle.   The battle for the West was won: no Persian invader ever again entered Greece   Greeks soon reopened all sea lanes of communication to Bosphorus and Black Sea.   Dominance in Greek alliance passed to Athens, which then established an empire or confederation based exclusively on sea power. Alexander the Great (334-323 B.C):  Alexander the Great (334-323 B.C) Roman Sea Power (c. 264-410 A.D.):  Roman Sea Power (c. 264-410 A.D.) Background for Punic Wars/Roman Expansion:  Background for Punic Wars/Roman Expansion Roman Galley:  Roman Galley Corvus: Boarding device. - Allowed Roman soldiers to board Carthaginian ships. Corvus Punic Wars (264-201 B.C.):  Punic Wars (264-201 B.C.) Slide39:  Roman Civil Wars- Battle of Actium (31 B.C.) Roman Navy:  Roman Navy Remained second to Roman Army, but… Enabled Roman empire to expand east to the Caspian Sea and Persian Gulf. Cleared the Mediterranean Sea of pirates. Adapted Roman Army’s missile tactics: use of catapults to hurl stones, javelins, and combustible projectiles. Slide43:  Mediterranean Sea Power After Pax Romana Rise of New Powers:  Rise of New Powers Vikings - Invasions of Europe from Scandinavia - 900s. Norman Invasion of England - Battle of Hastings 1066 Early Venice (1200s) Republican and Imperial Venice (1300s-mid 1400s) Ottoman Empire:  Ottoman Empire Challenges Venetian control of the Mediterranean Sea. Change of Focus from the Med to the Atlantic:  Change of Focus from the Med to the Atlantic Implications for Sea Power Spain become formidable Christians states continue inner rivalry for Mediterranean Christians states unite to fight against the Ottoman Turkey Culmination: Battle of Lepanto (5 Oct 1571) Battle of Lepanto-1571:  Battle of Lepanto-1571 Transitions:  Transitions Battle of Lepanto last galley battle Shift from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic Spain and Portugal New Naval Ships Galleon Age of Mediterranean preeminence in European sea power OVER Slide49:  The Spanish Galleon

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