Lesson 16 Early Cold War

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Information about Lesson 16 Early Cold War

Published on December 19, 2007

Author: Julie

Source: authorstream.com

Sea Power and Maritime Affairs:  Sea Power and Maritime Affairs Lesson 16: The Navy in the Early Cold War, 1945-1953 Yalta Conference (Feb 1945) The End of the Grand Alliance:  Yalta Conference (Feb 1945) The End of the Grand Alliance Slide3:  The great war is over………..now what? Slide4:  Europe 1939 Slide5:  Europe 1946: The Iron Curtain Slide6:  Allied Occupation of Germany post WWII Slide7:  Asia 1939 Slide8:  Asia 1946: The Bamboo Curtain End of World War II:  End of World War II United Nations established Replaced the League of Nations Security Council - Veto power General Assembly - general guiding body MacArthur commands U.S. army of occupation in Japan U.S., Great Britain, France and the Soviet Union divide Germany into zones of occupation U.S. initially enjoys atomic bomb monopoly Neglect of conventional military forces begins Communist control of Eastern Europe and Asia “Puppet” states dominated by the Soviet Union U.S. Naval Forces after WW II:  U.S. Naval Forces after WW II Rapid demobilization – why? Postwar tasking: Return troops, POWs, and refugees to the U.S. Minesweeping Must make do with still-new World War II equipment Useful ships mothballed RESERVES established Small numbers of ships stationed in the Far East and Mediterranean Reduction in Force: Navy and Marine Corps:  Reduction in Force: Navy and Marine Corps Personnel: Navy Personnel: Marines Major Combatants Aircraft 1945 3,400,000 475,000 1,200 40,000 1950 500,000 75,000 237 4,300 The Iron Curtain:  The Iron Curtain Winston Churchill Speech at Westminster College in Fulton, Missouri on March 5, 1946 “An iron curtain has descended across the Continent.” Describes Soviet sphere of influence and control in eastern Europe Expanded in vacuum left by defeat of Germany and Japan Albania, Bulgaria, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania became Soviet Satellites The Cold War 1947-1989:  The Cold War 1947-1989 Constant global confrontation between the Soviet Union and United States Avoidance of direct armed conflict between the two “Superpowers” Search for New Roles:  Search for New Roles Austerity No weapons systems except nuke Navy makes do with WWII equipment Debate over usefulness of conventional weapons Instability Pacific U.S. ambivalence toward China Role of 7th Fleet and Naval forces Far east Europe Instability in Turkey, Greece, Italy and France Gradual withdrawal of Britain Groundwork for U.S. role in Med National Security Act of 1947:  National Security Act of 1947 Unification and division advocated 1945-1947 Who got money? Who had control of aviation? Who had control of nuclear weapons and their delivery? Theory and fallacy of nuclear warfare and strategic bombing Reappraisal of the “National Military Establishment” Departments of the Army, Navy, and Air Force with sub-cabinet secretaries Secretary of Defense on President’s Cabinet Unified Commanders established in geographic areas Central Intelligence Agency and National Security Agency Joint Chiefs of Staff direct control of military operations Effects on Navy and Marine Corps: Preserves naval aviation and the Marine Corps – very critical to survival of Navy! Secretary of the Navy James Forrestal becomes Secretary of Defense Internal Struggles:  Internal Struggles Worldwide B-36 coverage…..I don’t think so! Navy……we can help! Comex construction of 65k ton super carrier Louis Johnson Succeeded Forrestal as SECDEF in 1949 Former B-36 manufacturer and extremely pro-USAF and strategic bombing “The Navy is on its way out.… We’ll never have any more amphibious ops. That does away with the Marine Corps. And the Air Force can do anything the Navy can do nowadays, so that does away with the Navy” Revolt of the Admirals - 1949:  Revolt of the Admirals - 1949 Johnson cancels construction of USS United States First “Super Carrier” of the fleet Secretary of the Navy John Sullivan resigns in protest Marine Corps and Naval air squadrons bear the brunt Naval aviators sound the alarm All the way to the CNO! Congressional hearings on the B-36 bomber from all services Carl Vinson Chairman of House Armed Services Committee B-36 was a billion dollar blunder that represented “a symbol of theory warfare…promised cheap and easy victory” Balanced forces strategy eventually accepted Squabbling trumped when Soviets detonate atomic bomb and outbreak of Korean war Containment :  Containment Truman Doctrine - March 1947 Helping free people everywhere “against aggressive movements that seek to impose…totalitarian regimes….by armed minorities or by outside pressures” Economic and Military aid to Greece and Turkey Non-communist governments secured Marshall Plan - June 1947 U.S. economic and military aid to threatened nations Dubbed the European Recovery Program Perceived clearly as an antidote to spread of Communism and denounced as imperialism by the Soviet Union Contradiction of policy and action! Containment:  Containment George Kennan's "X Article" in Foreign Affairs, July 1947 Enunciated the theory of “containment” of communism Official U.S. doctrine and foreign policy by 1950 Communist Coup in Czechoslovakia - February 1948 Berlin Blockade and Airlift: June 1948 - May 1949 Soviets intimidate European countries to not accept US monetary aid Great Britain unable to supply sufficient aid/support US is sole super power to retain a major Naval presence in Med and Southwest Pacific Slide20:  11 months: 2,343,315 tons of supplies Internal Struggles:  Internal Struggles Unification Struggle - 1945-47 Unity of command debated Independence of Air Force from Army pushed Air Force’s Massive Retaliation Strategy: Atomic bomb is a deterrent to war Air Force strategic bombing: New first line of defense to replace Navy No need for naval air (carriers) or Marines Massive reduction of the Department of the Navy proposed B-36 introduced Air Force long-range atomic bomber Some doubted range; Navy proposed supercarrier capable of handling aircraft armed with atomic weapons  USS UNITED STATES Atomic Bomb Defense Theory:  Atomic Bomb Defense Theory USAF perceived that U.S. monopoly on Atomic Bomb was all the defense needed Problem with theory: Diplomacy may not work in situations but A-bomb retaliation may be too extreme Strategic bombing cannot win a war eventually troops must be landed Navy required for transport and supply with an air arm for support and mobile body of amphibious troops (USMC) Containment in Asia:  Containment in Asia China Civil war between Nationalists and Communists backed by Soviets Chinese Nationalists evacuate to Formosa 1949 Communist People’s Republic established on mainland China under Mao American “White Paper” 30 year pact of “friendship, alliance and mutual assistance” signed with Soviet Union U.S. supports Chiang’s Nationalist government on Formosa (Taiwan) as legitimate government of China Korea Temporary occupation by Russia and the US Arbitrary division at 38th parallel Soviet formed government “to their liking” in the North US and UN pushed for free elections and democracy in the South Indochina Former French colony prior to WWII Japan combined all states into Vietnam Ho Chi Minh, Moscow trained Marxist watches in China, Invades with Vietminh in late 1945 The French want it back but……..naked imperialism! Who does the US support? Domino principle in South Asia North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO):  North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Response to Communist movements in Europe. National Security at stake and military cooperation essential to combat Soviet threat Military Alliance between 11 countries with a formal command structure in 1949 Article 5 : “parties agree that an armed attack against one or more…shall be considered an attack against them all” Joint military exercises commenced Warsaw Pact of established by the Soviet Union to counter NATO in 1955 - included eastern European communist states Belgium Canada Denmark France Iceland Italy Luxemborg Netherlands Norway Portugal UK US Within 1 year Greece, Turkey West Germany Naval Developments:  Naval Developments Strong Reserve of ships and personnel Mothballed Sixth Fleet presence in Mediterranean Seventh Fleet presence in Pacific Fleet Marine Force Advancements in ASW, aircraft design, angled flight deck, AAA guns, helicopter Pursued understanding of nuclear weapons Slide26:  The Korean War 1950-1953 Korean War:  Korean War Potsdam Conference established the 38th parallel as a temporary border Soviet Union set up a puppet government in North Korea the completion of WWII U.S. conducts free elections in South Korea and pull out of country 15 Aug 1948 Soviets believed that U.S. would not get involved in any conflict in Korea By June 1950, North Koreans had a large Soviet-trained army that was poised to strike 130,000 men with 100,000 in reserve 150 tanks and 180 planes A mess of Soviet weaponry Northern forces Numbered ~90,000 new recruits with no artillery, tanks or aircraft Loosely backed with US forces but………they were committed to NATO! Limited Naval presence in region Slide28:  25 June 1950: 90,000 North Korean troops invade U.N. condemns the act and immediately call for military sanctions Soviets had boycotted U.N. and were not present at the vote Within 1 week, over 34,000 ROK’s killed or missing By September, US and ROK forces dug in at “Pusan Perimeter” Korean War:  Korean War MacArthur CINC Far East Sends in remnants of General Walkers 8th Army from Japan 90% of North Korean Army surrounding Pusan Perimeter with no Navy UN forces unable to break out but required all NK’s could commit to hold the line American public shocked at the sorry state of the armed forces Korean War:  Korean War If you were MacArthur what would you do? Inchon:  Inchon MacArthur desires amphibious operation at Inchon Why? Plan receives intense scrutiny X corp Mixed bag of 71,000 US and South Korean troops Hastily assembled international fleet NO REHEARSAL Sacrifice surprise in favor of extensive bombardment Results? Slide32:  JCS authorize operations north of 38th parallel Why? Communist Chinese threats discredited by MacArthur Orders operations north from Hungham (X corp) and Pyongyang (8th Army) Why? Results? ‘Frozin’ Chosin UN Retreat :  ‘Frozin’ Chosin UN Retreat UN Advances to the Chosin Reservoir Attacked by seven Communist Chinese divisions (~200,000 men) Full scale retreat by 8th Army south past Seoul Legendary retreat to Hungnam of X corp Hold off 120,000 by effective use of perimeter defense General O.P. Smith “Gentlemen, we are not retreating. We are merely advancing in another direction.” Chesty Puller, ”We have the Chinese right where we want them. They’re all around us. Makes it easier for us to get them and kill them.” 100,000 troops and equipment evacuated by Seventh Fleet ships Regroup south of Seoul, essentially a stalemate ensues until ceasefire Fall from Grace:  Fall from Grace MacArthur proposes plans to push Chines back to Yalu Blockade China coast, strategic bombing and trained Tawain nationalists President Truman, State Department and JCS seek ceasefire Send draft copies of armistice to UN countries MacArthur taunts and threaten Red Army “If we are not in Korea to win”……. General Ridgeway to MacArthur “I relieve you sir!” Korean War:  Korean War Naval Participation Navy first on scene Logistics, gunfire, close air support and severing lines of communication Planes from Valley Forge and Triumph eliminated NK air forces Interdiction & Blockade Inchon landing Turning impending defeat into Victory Hungham evacuation Impact of the Korean War:  Impact of the Korean War Personnel 1951: Navy personnel strength doubled Where they come from? Reserves recalled Forces integrated Women Draft Impact of the Korean War:  Impact of the Korean War Research and development Carrier-based nuclear capability Nuclear submarines: Hyman Rickover Carrier-based jets Impact of the Korean War:  Impact of the Korean War Research and development Vertical assault (Helicopters) ASW SAM Impact of the Korean War:  Impact of the Korean War Navy laid groundwork for post-1953 modernized Navy Procurement U.S.S. Forrestal and U.S.S. Saratoga Sherman--class destroyer Boston--class CG U.S.S. Nautilus keel laid—1952 Absolutely vital to continued existence of carrier aviation! Public Law 416:  Public Law 416 1952 Define Marine Corps as separate service within DON Sized it as min. 3 divisions and 3 air wings Awarded Marine Corps primacy in Amphibious warfare Slide42:  Discussion Next time: The Navy in the Strategy of Containment

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