Published on October 25, 2007
Sea Power and Maritime Affairs: Sea Power and Maritime Affairs Lesson 10: The U.S. Navy and American Imperialism, 1898-1914 Learning Objectives: Learning Objectives Know the influence of the mass media in U.S. relations with Spain and the effect of the destruction of the U.S.S. Maine on public opinion. Comprehend the impact of Mahanian Doctrine on the naval strategy and thinking in preparation for and conduct of the war. Comprehend the reasons for the acceleration of U.S. Navy expansion following the war with Spain. Learning Objectives: Learning Objectives Know the effect of the Progressive Era in domestic politics on the Navy. Comprehend the threats and resultant actions taken by the U.S. concerning activities in the Pacific and Caribbean during the period 1900-1914. The Spanish-American War: The Spanish-American War Causes: Causes 1. Decreased isolationism in U.S. public and Congress 2. Cuban Revolution (1895-1898): -U.S. investments threatened 3. Yellow journalism Spanish authorities commit atrocities against Cuban civilians Lack of humanitarianism by Spanish toward Cubans create American sympathy The Fuze: The Fuze USS Maine Explosion - February 1898: Havana, Cuba. Mission — protect U.S. citizens and property. U.S. public angered - blame placed on Spain. “Free Cuba!” “Remember the Maine!” President William McKinley Congress declares war on Spain -- April 1898. USS MaineHavana, Cuba February 1898: USS Maine Havana, Cuba February 1898 USS Maine Funeral: USS Maine Funeral Fighting the War: Fighting the War Geography Spanish Empire- Cuba, Puerto Rico, Philippines, Guam U.S. strategic interests Panama Canal (since 1846), Hawaii (lingering unratified treaty of annexation) U.S forces Atlantic: Sampson/Schley Asiatic: Dewey (China/Japan) President William McKinley: President William McKinley Naval Orders of Battle: Naval Orders of Battle United States North Atlantic Squadron Sampson based in Key West. Schley’s “Flying Squadron” in Norfolk. USS Oregon sent from Pacific to Atlantic. Asiatic Squadron Commanded by Commodore George Dewey at Hong Kong. Sent by Assistant Secretary of the Navy Theodore Roosevelt. Spain Inferior naval forces. Fighting the War: Fighting the War Cuba Blockade of Santiago harbor (1 May) Guantanamo Bay seized by Huntington’s battalion of Marines Amphibious landing at Daiquiri (June 20) *Teddy Roosevelt’s “Rough Riders” Leads charge at the Battle of San Juan Hill Destruction of Cevera’s Fleet (July 3) Sampson/Schley command controversy Naval Results and Lessons 1. Spanish home fleet recalled while enroute to Phillipines 2. US technological superiority proves overwhelming (battleships and big guns) 3. US becomes dominant power in the Caribbean 4. Improvement needed in fire control and amphibious doctrine Rear AdmiralWilliam T.SampsonCommanderNorth Atlantic Squadron: Rear Admiral William T. Sampson Commander North Atlantic Squadron Rear AdmiralWinfield ScottSchleyCommanderNorth AtlanticFlying SquadronSpanish-AmericanWar: Rear Admiral Winfield Scott Schley Commander North Atlantic Flying Squadron Spanish-American War AdmiralPascual Cervera: Admiral Pascual Cervera Commander Spanish Fleet Battle of Santiago de Cuba Battle of Santiago : Battle of Santiago The“Rough Riders”: The “Rough Riders” Battle of San Juan Hill 1 July 1898 Slide21: Teddy Roosevelt Rough Riders: Rough Riders USS Oregon Battle of Santiago: USS Oregon Battle of Santiago Fighting the War: Fighting the War Pacific Philippines: Phase I Dewey’s Descent Spanish Fleet sunk at anchor Dewey national Hero Siege of Manila Other islands- Wake seized, Guam seized, Hawaii annexed Philippines: Phase II War against Philippine Nationalists U.S. bogged down CommodoreGeorgeDeweyCommanderU.S. Asiatic SquadronSpanish-American War: Commodore George Dewey Commander U.S. Asiatic Squadron Spanish-American War Battle of Manila Bay1 May 1898: Battle of Manila Bay 1 May 1898 U.S. Asiatic Fleet sails from Hong Kong to Manila. Dewey orders increased training and gunnery practice. Spanish use shore guns to augment anchored fleet. Dewey: “You may fire when you are ready, Gridley.” Spanish fleet sunk at anchor. Superior American gunnery. Dewey becomes a national hero. Siege of Manila follows with Army troops. War against Aguinaldo's Philippine Nationalists. Philippine Insurrection or Filipino-American War- 1899-1902. U.S. establishes control of entire Philippine Archipelago. BattleofManila Bay“You may fire when ready, Gridley.”: Battle of Manila Bay “You may fire when ready, Gridley.” - Commodore George Dewey Battle of Manila Bay: Battle of Manila Bay 1 May 1898 RESULTS OF SPANISH-AM WARU.S. “Empire” Established: RESULTS OF SPANISH-AM WAR U.S. “Empire” Established From Spain in 1898: Puerto Rico Guam Philippines Guantanamo Bay Naval Base in Cuba (Spain sells other island territories in the Pacific to the German Empire in 1899.) Formerly Independent: Hawaii (Annexed 1898) Wake Island - 1899 “American” Samoa (Harbor of Pago Pago) - 1899 American Pacific TerritoriesCoaling Stations for Ships: American Pacific Territories Coaling Stations for Ships Results: The U.S. Navy after the War: Results: The U.S. Navy after the War Battleships enshrined as principle warship Mahan's advocacy of fleet engagements vindicated. Commerce raiding discredited Construction programs to be completed by 1905: 10 first-rate battleships. 4 armored cruisers and 17 other types of ships Global empire yields: Overseas bases Expanded obligations to protect overseas interests Dewey promoted to 4 star admiral and heads new Navy General Board. First U.S. peacetime strategic planning apparatus. Missions are to devise war plans and assess foreign navies’ capabilities. Progressive Era Politics and the Navy (1901-1914): Progressive Era Politics and the Navy (1901-1914) Strong Presidents: Theodore Roosevelt, William Howard Taft, and Woodrow Wilson. Republican Congress funds battleships and canal construction. Large increases in federal budget. Large increase in percentage of federal budget for Department of the Navy. Dewey and General Board Access to Secretary of the Navy and / or the President on a regular basis due to increased importance of the Navy. Position of CNO created (1915) - Promotes an even stronger Navy voice in DC Prewar International Concerns(1900-1914): Prewar International Concerns (1900-1914) Expanding interests of Germany produces U.S. attention to the Caribbean Expanding Interests of Japan produces U.S. attention in the Pacific The Caribbean: The Caribbean Threat: Germany U.S. has stake in Caribbean Annexation of Puerto Rico Naval base in Cuba Germany has strong interest in Latin America Venezuela Crisis (1902) Germany wants base there Germany (plus Britain, Italy) blockades to recover from default on 12.5 million loan Roosevelt Corollary to Monroe Doctrine (1904): Roosevelt Corollary to Monroe Doctrine (1904) Caribbean Sea Vital defense of the U.S. - Navy protects access to Panama Canal. European relations with Latin America. Venezuela Crisis (1902) demonstrates need for U.S. to ensure European powers need not intervene in Western Hemisphere. Ensuring “hands off” the New World, requires the U.S. to be the “international police power” in the Western Hemisphere “The Big Stick”: “The Big Stick” Theodore Roosevelt (December 1904): U.S. obligated “in flagrant cases of wrong-doing or impotence (in Latin America) to the exercise of an international police power.” Constant interventions by Navy and Marines: Haiti, Nicaragua, and the Dominican Republic. Cuba - Platt Amendment. Vera Cruz, Mexico. “Yankee Imperialism” despised by many Latin Americans. Panama Canal: Joining the two-ocean Navy: Panama Canal: Joining the two-ocean Navy Renewed U.S. desire for canal in Central America. Link between Atlantic and Pacific Fleets. Need for the canal is highlighted by USS Oregon’s long transit to the Battle of Santiago. Strong support from President Theodore Roosevelt. Essentially Mahanian Panama Canal: Panama Canal Panamanian Revolution against Colombia - 1903. Engineered and influenced by U.S. Panama Canal Zone ceded to U.S. Construction of the canal begins in 1904. Completed in 10 years Increased importance of U.S. control of Caribbean Sea. Protection of Panama Canal is vital to defense of the U.S. U.S. Interests in the Pacific: U.S. Interests in the Pacific THE THREAT: JAPAN 1) U. S. stake: Hawaii, Philippines interests 2) Japan, as a foe of Russia/China, is first perceived as a U.S. ally 3) Ally turns into a possible enemy 4) Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895) and Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905): Leave Japan commanding the West Pacific Opening and Modernization: Opening and Modernization Commodore M.C. Perry - 1854 Treaty of Kanagawa European powers quickly follow U.S. lead. Increased trade with the West. Rapid modernization of industry and armed forces. Colonial expansion begins on Pacific Islands. Japanese Navy From the Age of Galleys directly to the Modern Age. Skips entirely the Age of Sail. JapaneseWarships: Japanese Warships Japanese Battleship Asahi: Japanese Battleship Asahi Japanese Armored Cruiser Yakuma: Japanese Armored Cruiser Yakuma Increases in U.S. Naval Power: Increases in U.S. Naval Power By 1898 4 1st Class Battleships: Indiana, Massachusetts, Oregon, and Iowa. 2 2nd Class Battleships: Texas and Maine. 2 Armored Cruisers. 10 Protected Cruisers. Gunboats, Monitors, Torpedo Boats. Modern technology in the fleet: Steam, armor, and rifled breech-loading guns. U.S. Response to the Pacific Threat: U.S. Response to the Pacific Threat 1. Around-the-world cruise of the “Great White Fleet” (1907-1909) a) To initmidate Japan and to show the world America’s new naval might as a first-rate great power b) 16 pre-Dreadnought battleships circumnavigated the globe arriving in Norfolk, VA in 1909 without having suffered one serious breakdown c) Remarkable demonstration of U.S. industrial and technological prowess U.S. Response to the Pacific Threat: U.S. Response to the Pacific Threat 2. War Plan Orange: The U.S. Naval strategy for war in the Pacific until WWII a) Initial loss of Philippines, Guam b) Fall back to Aleutians, Hawaii, or Panama Canal c) Re-group the battle fleet d) Sortie west, seeking Japanese battle fleet for climactic Mahanian engagement and then reoccupy Phillipines PresidentTheodore RooseveltandRear AdmiralRobley D. “Fighting Bob” EvansPrior to the sailing of the Great White Fleet - 1907.: President Theodore Roosevelt and Rear Admiral Robley D. “Fighting Bob” Evans Prior to the sailing of the Great White Fleet - 1907. The Great White Fleet: The Great White Fleet Route of the Great White Fleet – 1907-08: Route of the Great White Fleet – 1907-08 Technology Improvements: Technology Improvements Improved gunnery: Smokeless powder Better aiming, firing, fire control, and fleet coordination HMS Dreadnought - 1907 First all “big-gun” battleship launched by Great Britain Makes all other battleships obsolete Battle Cruisers Same armament as Dreadnoughts but less armor Faster speeds Destroyers - Vital part of fleet - protection from torpedoes Submarines USS Holland - 1900 Diesel engines developed allow greater maneuverability. Radios - Improved communications. HMS Dreadnought First all “Big Gun” Battleship Eight 12-inch gunsDesign concept: 12/12/2412-inch guns, 12 inches of armor, 24 knots: HMS Dreadnought First all “Big Gun” Battleship Eight 12-inch guns Design concept: 12/12/24 12-inch guns, 12 inches of armor, 24 knots HMS Dreadnought: HMS Dreadnought Dawn of Naval Aviation: Dawn of Naval Aviation Wright Brothers -- Kitty Hawk, North Carolina: 1903 Eugene Ely First flight of an aircraft from a ship in 1910. First landing of an aircraft on a ship in 1911. Glenn Curtiss - First seaplane landing - 1911. Lieutenant “Spuds” Ellyson: Naval Aviator #1. Royal Navy in a similar stage of development of aviation. Wright Brothers: Kitty Hawk, North Carolina 17 December 1903 Wright Brothers Eugene Ely: USS Birmingham (CL 2) 14 November 1910 Eugene Ely Dawn of Naval Aviation: Dawn of Naval Aviation Birthday of Naval Aviation: 8 May 1911. U.S. Navy purchases two Curtiss biplanes. Office of Naval Aeronautics established in 1914. Early naval aviation missions: Scouting location of the enemy fleet. Directing naval gunfire.