Lesson 10 Early Civilization

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Information about Lesson 10 Early Civilization

Published on September 16, 2014

Author: ninamaru22



 Comes from civitas, which is a Latin word for “city.”  It denotes a complex way of life in the city.

 Organized and centralized government  Organized religion  Specialization in economic activity

 Social stratification  Knowledge in science, arts, and architecture  System of writing

 Sumerian civilization emerged in Mesopotamia which is the land between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in what is now Iraq.  Mesopotamia comes from the Greek words which means “land between the two rivers.

3,500 to 3,000 B.C.E

1.Agriculture -rainfall was not and the annual flood or overflow of the rivers was unpredictable

2. Trading Other natural materials like metal, wood, stone, and semi precious stones needed for tools and jewelry were acquired through trading.

1. Priest-king  the first leader of Sumer  main mediator between the patron god and the inhabitants of the city

 enforced laws to maintain peace and order and was also charged of the construction and repair of public structures such as the irrigation system and protective walls.  2nd to the military king

 lead the soldiers in wars and to defend the city

 Is a form of government in which the ruler is seen either as a god or a chosen representative of a god.

 Series of rulers from a single family

Polytheist -believers of many gods Four of their most important gods controlled by the forces of nature: An, the god of heavens Enlil, the god of air Enki, god of the water Ninhursag, goddess of the earth

Ziggurat - largest edifice in Sumerian cities - a shrine for the gods and goddess -served as the point of reference for the layout of the city. -shape of mountains or pyramids

 Sumer cities: ( rectangular in shape, surrounded by high and thick walls, and has wide roads)  Ur  Uruk  Eridu  Lagash  Nippur  Kish

 Specialization – the development of skills in a specific kind of work.  Artisans – skilled workers who make goods by hands

Scribes –one who writes and records

 Cuneiform – form of writing  In Latin cuneus which means “wedge-shaped.“  Stylus – wedge-like writing tool

 Epic of Gilgamesh –the very first recorded epic in the world  Plow, wheelbarrows, wheelspun pottery, bronze metallurgy (alloy of copper and tin), and silver currency  They invented the decimal system, 360 degree circle and lunar calendar. 60:60 seconds in a minute

City-states of Sumer were constantly at war with each other. Migration and Invasion

2334 B.C.E, Sargon 1 of Akkadia conquered the independent city-states of Sumer and founded the first unified kingdom.

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