Published on September 16, 2014
Comes from civitas, which is a Latin word for “city.” It denotes a complex way of life in the city.
Organized and centralized government Organized religion Specialization in economic activity
Social stratification Knowledge in science, arts, and architecture System of writing
Sumerian civilization emerged in Mesopotamia which is the land between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in what is now Iraq. Mesopotamia comes from the Greek words which means “land between the two rivers.
3,500 to 3,000 B.C.E
1.Agriculture -rainfall was not and the annual flood or overflow of the rivers was unpredictable
2. Trading Other natural materials like metal, wood, stone, and semi precious stones needed for tools and jewelry were acquired through trading.
1. Priest-king the first leader of Sumer main mediator between the patron god and the inhabitants of the city
enforced laws to maintain peace and order and was also charged of the construction and repair of public structures such as the irrigation system and protective walls. 2nd to the military king
lead the soldiers in wars and to defend the city
Is a form of government in which the ruler is seen either as a god or a chosen representative of a god.
Series of rulers from a single family
Polytheist -believers of many gods Four of their most important gods controlled by the forces of nature: An, the god of heavens Enlil, the god of air Enki, god of the water Ninhursag, goddess of the earth
Ziggurat - largest edifice in Sumerian cities - a shrine for the gods and goddess -served as the point of reference for the layout of the city. -shape of mountains or pyramids
Sumer cities: ( rectangular in shape, surrounded by high and thick walls, and has wide roads) Ur Uruk Eridu Lagash Nippur Kish
Specialization – the development of skills in a specific kind of work. Artisans – skilled workers who make goods by hands
Scribes –one who writes and records
Cuneiform – form of writing In Latin cuneus which means “wedge-shaped.“ Stylus – wedge-like writing tool
Epic of Gilgamesh –the very first recorded epic in the world Plow, wheelbarrows, wheelspun pottery, bronze metallurgy (alloy of copper and tin), and silver currency They invented the decimal system, 360 degree circle and lunar calendar. 60:60 seconds in a minute
City-states of Sumer were constantly at war with each other. Migration and Invasion
2334 B.C.E, Sargon 1 of Akkadia conquered the independent city-states of Sumer and founded the first unified kingdom.
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1. Comes from civitas, which isa Latin word for “city.” It denotes a complex way oflife in the city. 2. Organized andcentralized government Organized ...
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