Lecture9Materials

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Published on February 22, 2008

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Lecture 9 Materials:  Lecture 9 Materials Prologue:  Prologue The average American in their lifetime accounts for the use of 540 t of construction materials, 18 t of paper, 23 t of wood, 16 t of metals, and 32 t of organic chemicals. (p. 11, Worldwatch Paper 121, The Next Efficiency Revolution: Creating a Sustainable Materials Economy, John E. Young & Aaron Sachs, September 1994) Context:  Context Materials are the most difficult problem to address in sustaining the built environment What are ‘green materials’? How do we evaluate them? What is the best we can do? What are the limitations? How do we make industry change? Materials flows between all economic sectors, construction uses about 40% in U.S. Slide4:  Revised Sustainable Construction Framework (1994-2005) Production 6. Life Cycle Costing Ecosystems Source: “Principles and a Model for Sustainable Construction,” C.J.Kibert, Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Sustainable Construction, Tampa, Florida USA, 6-9 November 1994 Slide5:  Principles of Sustainable Construction Minimize resource consumption (Conserve) Maximize resource reuse (Reuse) Use renewable or recyclable resources (Renew/Recycle) Protect the natural environment (Protect nature) Create a healthy, non-toxic environment (Non-Toxics) Apply Life Cycle Cost Analysis (Economics) Pursue Quality in creating the built environment (Quality) Evolution of sustainable construction phases:  Evolution of sustainable construction phases Accelerating Progress- Closing Materials Loops:  Accelerating Progress- Closing Materials Loops Products: DfE Embedded in emerging science of Industrial Ecology Well-established in other sectors: automotive, appliances, electronics Materials selection and fastening systems are crucial Design: Ecological design Appears in virtually definitions of sustainable construction/green building Weakest link in sustainable construction- evolution has been slow Must include detailed and comprehensive natural systems integration End of Life: Deconstruction Whole/partial disassembly of buildings to enhance reuse and recycling Design for deconstruction is an essential requirement DfE in Computer Industry:  DfE in Computer Industry Slide9:  DfE Example – Xerox Corporation Slide10:  Solenium Carpeting, Interface, Inc. Ecological Design:  Ecological Design Some definitions the effective adaptation to and interaction with nature’s processes (Sim Van der Ryn) proactive attempts to mitigate humanity’s transformation and negative impact on particular natural systems (Peter Wheelright) Needed: Resolution of the meaning of ecological design Integration of natural systems as a key component Application to energy, water, materials, ecosystem resources in sustainable construction model or metaphor? Sustainability Issues:  Sustainability Issues What are the sustainability issues connected to materials? Renewable resources Recyclability Recycled Content Downcycling Waste Disposal Changing linear processes to cyclical ones. Slide13:  Service life Pekka Huovila, CIB W82 Melbourne 14-16.2.1996 SERVICE LIFE ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE TECHNICAL PERFORMANCE ecology LCA quality QA economy LCC Slide14:  Sustainable Construction= Decision Systems Basics of Building Materials:  Basics of Building Materials Materials vs. products Recycling vs. Reuse Building materials are traditional and change slowly: concrete, steel, aluminum, wood, clay, rock, glass New materials: plastics, “hamburger helper” wood New building materials emerge to replace others that become scarce or too costly New building products creating problems: composites, no secondary use, non-renewable resources There is significant waste in the demolition and construction processes ALL materials production creates environmental problems Measures for Evaluation:  Measures for Evaluation Embodied Energy Emissions (Manufacture and In-Place) Recyclability Reuseability Recycled Content Durability Ecological Rucksack Ecological Footprint Embodied Energy (EE):  Embodied Energy (EE) Embodied Energy = [Extraction + Manufacturing + Installation + Transport] Energy EE-Some Common Building Materials:  EE-Some Common Building Materials Material Embodied Energy (BTU’s per pound) Steel 19,200 Concrete 10,300 Linoleum 49,934 Vinyl Flooring 34,000 Nylon Carpet 63,500 Recycled Plastic Carpet 45,800 Organic-Solvent Paints 20,500 Water-Based Paints 10,000 Wood 91,618 (30,000 for a 8’ 2x4) EE-Carpeting:  EE-Carpeting Type Embodied Energy, Btu/lb Nylon 63,500 Polyester No data Olefin 41,000 PET 45,800 Wool No data Violations of TNS System Conditions:  Violations of TNS System Conditions Cardinal Rules for a Closed Loop Building Materials Strategy:  Cardinal Rules for a Closed Loop Building Materials Strategy 1. Buildings must be deconstructable. 2. Products must be disassemblable. 3. Materials must be recyclable. 4. Products/materials must be harmless in production and in use. 5. Materials dissipated from recycling must be harmless Pragmatic View (EBN):  Pragmatic View (EBN) General Materials Strategy:  General Materials Strategy Reuse existing structures Reduce materials use Use materials from renewable resources Reuse building components Use recycled content and recyclable materials Use locally produced materials LEED-NC 2.2 MR:  LEED-NC 2.2 MR MRp1: Storage and collection of recyclables MRc1: Reuse of existing buildings: 75%, 95%, 50% or inteio MRc2:Construction waste diversion: 50%, 75% MRc3: Materials reuse: 5%, 10% MRc4: Recycled content: 10%, 20% MRc5: Regional materials: 10%, 20% MRc6: Rapidly renewable materials: 2.5% MRc7: Certified wood: 50% Major Building Materials:  Major Building Materials Structure, shell, exterior Steel Concrete CMU Brick Stone Siding: Vinyl, cement composite Wood Glass Interior Finishes Paint Carpeting Substrates Insulation Wood-Current (1):  Wood-Current (1) Only renewable material suitable for structure Lumber is 50% of world’s wood production US consumption of timber products: 450 m tons - 25% is structural lumber Products: framing lumber, plywood, OSB, engineered wood products Problems and Issues: resource depletion, old growth forests removal of environmental function (CO2 sequestering) forestry practices, and certification wood waste: production and in construction CO2 generation via deforestation (2 gigaton/yr vs. 5 gigaton/yr fm fossil fuels) Wood-Current (2):  Wood-Current (2) Treated lumber- fungus and termite resistant 95% is pressure treated Ammonical-chromium arsemate (ACA) and chromated copper arsenate (CCA) are most common ACA and CCA are water soluble salts and toxic to fish and other water species Wood - “Green”:  Wood - “Green” 1. Certify Wood Products: FSC or AFPA FSC: Forestry Stewardship Council AFPA: American Forest and Paper Association 2. Reduce wood waste in manufacture 3. Reduce wood waste in construction 4. Better reuse of wood products Slide30:  Source for AFPA info: http://www.afandpa.org/ Slide31:  AFPA Principles for Sustainable Forestry America's managed forests make a vital contribution to the nation and to the world by providing economic, consumer, environmental and aesthetic benefits indispensable to our quality of life. A vital forest-based economy provides wood and paper products, employment, and a viable tax base. Accomplishing sustainable forestry on private land requires a partnership among landowners, contractors, and the companies that purchase wood. AF&PA members, therefore, support on the forestland they manage¬and will promote on other lands¬sustainable forestry practices. Moreover, AF&PA members will support efforts to protect private property rights and the ability of all private landowners to sustainably manage their forestland. This support stems from the AF&PA membership's belief that forest landowners have an important stewardship responsibility and commitment to society. In keeping with this responsibility, the members of the American Forest & Paper Association support the following principles: Slide32:  Sustainable Forestry To practice sustainable forestry to meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs by practicing a land stewardship ethic which integrates the reforestation managing, growing, nurturing, and harvesting of trees for useful products with the conservation of soil, air and water quality, wildlife and fish habitat, & aesthetics. Responsible Practices To use in its own forests, & promote among other forest landowners, sustainable forestry practices that are economically & environmentally responsible. Forest Health and Productivity To protect forests from wildfire, pests, diseases, and other damaging agents in order to maintain and improve long-term forest health and productivity. Protecting Special Sites To manage its forests and lands of special significance (e.g., biologically, geologically, or historically significant) in a manner that takes into account their unique qualities. Continuous Improvement To continuously improve the practice of forest management and also to monitor, measure and report the performance of our members in achieving our commitment to sustainable forestry. Slide33:  Some Implementation Guidelines-Sustainable Forestry-AF&PA Member Forests Objective 1. Broaden the practice of sustainable forestry by employing an array of scientifically, environmentally, and economically sound practices in the growth, harvest, and use of forests. Performance Measures: a. Each AF&PA member company will define its own policies, programs, and plans to implement and achieve the AF&PA Sustainable Forestry Principles and Guidelines. b. AF&PA members will, individually, through cooperative efforts, or through AF&PA, provide funding for forest research to improve the health, productivity, and management of all forests. Objective 2. Promptly reforest harvested areas to ensure long-term forest productivity and conservation of forest resources. Performance Measures: a. AF&PA members will reforest after final harvest by planting or direct seeding within two years, or by planned natural regeneration methods within five years. AF&PA members will promote state-level reporting of the overall rate of reforestation success. Forestry Stewardship Council Certification Programs :  Forestry Stewardship Council Certification Programs Rainforest Alliance Smart Wood Program(US) SGS Qualifor Programme (UK) Soil Association Responsible Forestry Programme (UK) Scientific Certification Systems Forest Conservation Program (U.S.) FSC: Oaxaca, Mexico Slide36:  In general, candidate operations must meet the following broad principles: 1) long-term security for the forest (i.e., it will not be cleared in the foreseeable future); 2) maintenance of environmental functions, including watershed stability and biological conservation; 3) sustained yield forestry production; 4) positive impact on local communities; and, 5) the existence of a system for long-term forest management planning, management and monitoring (including a written forest management plan). In the case of plantations, SmartWood does not endorse the conversion of standing forests to tree plantations, but will certify those that have been developed on previously deforested lands and/or that are a first step towards forest restoration. SmartWood sees this as a means to restore tree cover, protect soils and watersheds, and reduce pressure on natural forests. More specificopportunities for, or limitations on, plantation certification will be determined by regional conditions. Multi-species plantings are encouraged along with other reforestation practices that yield strongenvironmental and social or community benefits. Smartwood Criteria for Source Certification Source: http://www.rainforest-alliance.org/rfa_live_cgi/swr1.cgi?caller=swr%2Ecgi Slide37:  Scientific Certification Systems (SCS) is an internationally recognized neutral third-party organization providing verification of manufacturer claims such as recycled content, biodegradability, water efficiency, no smog-producing ingredients, etc. Under the Forest Conservation Program, SCS certifies forestry management practices to determine the degree to which timber resources and the surrounding ecosystem are being protected, and to verify that the timber operation is having a positive impact on the surrounding communities. Slide38:  Certified Wood from Seven Islands Forests From EBN Volume 3, No. 6 -- November/December 1994 It is now possible for environmentally concerned architects and builders to specify and buy framing lumber, white cedar shingles, and hardwood flooring that have been independently certified to be from well-managed forests. The Seven Islands Land Company, headquartered in Bangor, Maine, has just received chain-of-custody certification for several different wood products produced from the company's wood. Seven Islands manages approximately 1 million acres of forest in northern and western Maine for the Pingree heirs, who have owned the land for over 150 years. The forest operations were certified by Scientific Certification Systems, Inc. (SCS), an independent, third-party certification company based in Oakland, California. As with other forest operations SCS has certified (Menominee Indian Reservation forests in Wisconsin and Collins Pine in California), SCS focuses its review on three areas: (1) sustainability of the timber resource; (2) maintenance of the forest ecosystem; and (3) socio-economic benefits provided to the local and regional community. Seven Islands' scores in these three categories, on a 0-100 scale, were as follows:Timber resource sustainability 72; Forest ecosystem maintenance 75; Socio-economic benefits 88. These ratings are lower than those of the Collins Pine forest certified by SCS in 1993 (Collins Pine received scores of 86, 81, and 89, respectively), but the SCS review team concluded that "the Pingree lands are being managed in a manner consistent with the principles of sustainable forestry and that SCS certification as `well-managed' was an appropriate and justified recognition." Slide39:  While certification of forests is important, more important from the builder's, architect's,or specifier's perspective are the actual products produced from those forestoperations. To certify end products, SCS has to track wood from the forest to the finished products. This is called "chain-of-custody" certification. Very few wood products have received chain-of-custody certification to date. Now SCS has completed this chain-of-custody certification of seven product lines from different companies using wood originating on the Seven Islands land. These products include the first "commodity" lumber products and will serve as a very important test of the viability of wood product certification. Slide40:  Continuing the ongoing trend of manufactured wood products replacing solid sawn wood in light-frame construction, Trus Joist MacMillan (TJM), of Boise, Idaho has just introduced TimberStrandreg. Premium Studs. Nominal 2x4 and 2x6 TimberStrand studs are now available in both standard and custom lengths. TimberStrand was introduced in 1992 for window and door construction, furniture manufacture, and structural headers and rim joists. To produce TimberStrand, low-grade aspen and poplar trees are stripped of bark and shaved into long, thin strands. The strands are dried, coated with an MDI (polyurethane) binder, and compressed into huge billets using steam-injection presses. The billets, up to 5-1/2" (140 mm) thick, 8' (2.4 m) wide, and 35' (10.7 m) long, are then milled into the desired dimensions and sanded. TimberStrand Joists, Truss Joist Macmillan Concrete-Current (1):  Concrete-Current (1) Cement use in U.S.: 100 million tons, 70 million domestically produced. Cement production creates environmental problems mining activities: runoff from tailings waste, turbidity of surface waters, increase in BOD, fishkills crushing operations: energy use kilning operations: energy use, use of waste tires, cement kiln dust (CKD), dioxin emissons CKD collected by air pollution control devices: 12.7 m tons, 65% recycled in plant Concrete-Current (2):  Concrete-Current (2) Greenhouse warming gases: CO2 from combustion and from calcining limestone into lime: CaCO3------>CaO+CO2 produces 1 to 1.2 tons of CO2 per ton of cement Note: over several years concrete reabsorbs CO2: 20 lbs per 100 lbs of portland cement Other emissions: NOx, SO2, dioxins, metals (Pb, Cd, Cr) Use of non-renewable fuels: shift from coal to natural gas Cement production is regional: 60% in 100 mile radius, rarely > 200 miles Admixtures and pigments also problematical Concrete-”Green”:  Concrete-”Green” Reduce reliance on cement substitute flyash for cement, up to 70% possible Recycle aggregate Increase durabiltiy Slide44:  Autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC), also called autoclaved cellular concrete--ACC) is produced by about 200 plants in 35 countries and is used extensively in residential, commercial, and industrial buildings. At a density of roughly one-fifth that of conventional concrete and a compressive strength of about one-tenth, AAC is used in load-bearing walls only in low-rise buildings. In high-rises, AAC is used in partition and curtain walls. The material is also fairly friable and must be protected from weather with stucco or siding. On the positive side, it insulates much better than concrete and has very good sound absorbing characteristics. Hebel Block Installation Slide50:  Recommendation: Wood vs. Steel in Residential Framing (1) Where wood is available from a certified well-managed forest, it's probably the best choice environmentally. Air-dried lumber is best of all because of its lower embodied energy. (2) Do not use steel for exterior wall framing without taking measures to control thermal bridging. (3) Where steel framing can replace wood treated with arsenical preservatives, it's probably a worthwhile trade-off. If you can use untreated wood or borate-treated wood, however, the choice is much less clear, especially for exterior walls. (4) Consider using steel for interior framing, while sticking with wood for the exterior. Using thinner (25 gauge) non-load-bearing steel for interior framing avoids the thermal bridging problem, and uses less steel per member. It's also easier to work with than load-bearing 18- or 20-gauge steel. Classes of Potential Raw Materials for Recycled Content Building Products:  Classes of Potential Raw Materials for Recycled Content Building Products Post-Industrial (PI) Post-Agricultural (PA) Post-Consumer (PK) Post-Construction (PC) Post-Demolition (PD) Post-Industrial Waste (PI):  Post-Industrial Waste (PI) slag fly ash (Class C & Class F) mine tailings (feldspar) gypsum textile waste wood waste (sawdust) sludge (waste water treatment plants) in-plant waste (metals, plastics) not: most industrial waste Post-Agricultural Waste (PA):  Post-Agricultural Waste (PA) straw Wheat Others Post-Consumer (PK):  Post-Consumer (PK) plastics metals glass paper cardboard tires other rubber not: ccompostables, carpet Post-Construction:  Post-Construction Concrete: aggregate Wood Metals Gypsum Paper Cardboard Not: plastics, glass, roofing materials, tiles Post-Demolition:  Post-Demolition Wood Metals Masonry Concrete Reuse: Wood: problem of regrading Architectural items fixtures brick Not: others Ideal Recycling System:  Ideal Recycling System PI PA PK PC PD Slide58:  Actual Recycling System PI PA PK PC PD Observations:  Observations Ideal system: Post-XYZ materials and waste are raw materials for another process, not a novelty Recycling vs. Downcycling: Recycling: metals Downcycling: tires-to-tiles-to? Produkt Verantwortung 3 Levels of Design for Recycling: Raw materials: use only materials that can be recycled Products: design for disassembly (bar coding) Buildings: design for disassembly Questions: Composite materials -Plastics Green Building Materials ‘96:  Green Building Materials ‘96 Held in Gainesville 24-25 June 1996 Forty seven manufacturers and associations Divided into 8 product categories What are green building material? Three major qualities:  Three major qualities Characteristics required for calling a product “Green” Community responsibility Responsibility of construction community “Green” Characteristics:  “Green” Characteristics Acceptable levels of environmental performance for each material need to be determined The entire life cycle needs to be considered, from materials extraction to product disposal No permanent environmental contamination should occur during production, use, or disposal Materials in a ‘pure’ rather than composite state are preferable Building material production and application need to be energy efficient Complete disclosure of ingredients is essential Third party certification for certain products is desirable Deconstruction after building use must be possible Responsibility to Community:  Responsibility to Community Local production and use should be promoted. Economic and ecological effects at local to global scales need to be considered. Product choice should demonstrate a sense of intergenerational responsibility Construction Community’s Contributions to Change:  Construction Community’s Contributions to Change Production process needs periodic examination (ecoauditing, environmental management systems) on a product by product basis, will result in improved products and processes. A pass/fail system of ‘green’ product labels is not recommended. Specific info regarding quality and environmental impacts is a better approach. Lets consumers choose according to their specific needs and interests. Sustainable Building Materials :  Sustainable Building Materials Example of biobased construction material that meets national standards and is approved for use in DOE Weatherization Assistance Program Insulation (spray foam) Made from soy Density 0.5 lb/cu ft (ASTM D1622) Compressive strength 20-30 psi (ASTM D1621) Flame spread <20 (ASTM E84) Smoke development <400 (ASTM D2863) Contains/emits no VOCs, CFCs, formaldehyde, or HCFCs Passed UPITT Test for off gassing toxins when burned Sustainable Building Materials :  Sustainable Building Materials Example of biobased construction material that meets national standards and is approved for use in DOE Weatherization Assistance Program Roofing sealant Made from soy ENERGY STAR® approved Single-coat application Exceeds UL Class A Flame Ratings 100% Resistant to mold, algae, bacteria (ASTM D3273) 10-year labor and material warranty Sustainable Building Materials :  Sustainable Building Materials Example of recycled construction material that meets national standards Paint Tested at PNNL and ANL Applies better than most high end paint Coverage equal to any high end paint Quality control to avoid volatile organic compounds and other hazardous ingredients + batch testing Mix to match Available thru Sherwin Williams GSA contract GS06F0012M One half the price ($9/gal) Sustainable Building Materials :  Sustainable Building Materials Example of biobased AND recycled construction material that meets national standards Carpet Tested at PNNL Backing: 55% biobased content by weight (polyurethane from soybeans) Secondary Backing: 100% post-consumer recycled content Facing: 25% recycled content and recyclable into carpet fiber Price: Comparable to other high quality commercial carpets Qualifies for LEED (Green Building Rating System) Meets CRI requirements for volatile organic compounds (no vinyl) Sustainable Building Materials :  Sustainable Building Materials Example of energy efficient construction material that meets national standards Lighting Incandescent (75W) ~13 lpw Fluorescent (T8)* ~83 lpw HID (Metal Halide) ~100 lpw SSL (White LED) ~45 lpw *California has specifications for low mercury lights Sustainable Building Materials :  Sustainable Building Materials Example of water efficient construction material that meets national standards Urinals Tested at PNNL Trap/sealant/gravity instead of flushing water Complies with ADA, ANSI Z124.9, CSA®, UPC®, IAPMO C-3346; ICC-ES #2324 Avg water reduction: 40,000 gallons/urinal/yr Sustainable Building Materials :  Sustainable Building Materials Example of energy AND water efficient construction material that meets national standards Water Heaters – Quick Flash and ENERGY STAR Conserve Energy Lower temperature – maximum 120F Insulate pipes with special foam Install solar panels to heat water Conserve water Install low-flow shower heads, faucets, toilets (save 50%) Fix leaks (save 6-10 gallons/day) Don’t run water while washing hands, etc. Homosote fabric covered acoustic wall panel made from 100% newsprint cellulose fiber and burlap. Reduced levels of formaldehyde used as binding agent.:  Homosote fabric covered acoustic wall panel made from 100% newsprint cellulose fiber and burlap. Reduced levels of formaldehyde used as binding agent. Slide73:  Gridcore panels developed by the US Forest Products Laboratory are %100 recycled cellulose fibers formed with moisture and heat-pressed without binding agents. Current application as substitute for plywood in set design and it is being developed for partitions, cabinetry substrate, and door panels. Slide74:  Cotton insulation made from 100% post-industrial textile manufacturing waste. Treated with borate for insect and flame resistance Slide75:  FiberSurfaces DURATEXTURE is a calcium sulfate base cement, acrylic polymers, and wood waste fiber simulated stone. There are no VOC emissions. Can be used a decorative paneling or horizontal surfacing. Slide76:  Strawmit wall panel made from 100% post-agricultural waste material using formaldehyde reduced bio-resins and heat processing. This product is used as infill with studs to create non-loadbearing interior partition walls. Slide77:  Hardiplank (siding) and Hardishake (roofing) are autoclaved recycled wood fiber and cement composite exterior sheathing materials. Hardiplank has been known to have better performance than Hardishake in harsh climates. Slide78:  Tricel panels are 100% recycled kraftpaper impregnated with phenolic resin for moisture, fungi and insect resistance. Honeycomb core provides high strength to material use ratio, suitable for shelving and display panels, other non-structural purposes. Slide79:  Collins and Aikman carpet tiles using fibers made from 100% recycled polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic. The tiles themselves are removable and the fibers recyclable by the manufacturer. Slide80:  Homosote structural acoustic floor decking and carpet underlayment made from %100 recycled newsprint cellulose. Treated against termites and fungi. Slide81:  Fly-ash from coal fired electrical generating plants is typically used as a substitute for cement in block and concrete manufacturing up to 40% of the cement content. Class C fly ash, from lignite and sub-bituminous coal west of the Mississippi is preferable to Class F fly ash from anthracite and bituminous coal in the eastern US. Slide82:  Fly-ash use in wide numbers of applications Slide83:  Amofoam expanded polystyrene (EPS) insulation made with pentane as the blowing agent and a minimum of 50% recycled content. This product is certified by Scientific Certifications Systems, a product environmental claims verification service. Slide84:  Domtar GYPROC made in the Savannah, GA manufacturing plant uses 100% synthetic gypsum made as a by-product from titanium dioxide production. The kraft paper facing is 100% recycled paper. Slide85:  Medite (Interior) and Medex (Exterior) fiberboard sheathing material used as a substitute for conventional particleboard and plywood. Manufactured from 100% post-consumer wood waste and non-formaldehyde based bioresins. Slide86:  Construction using FASWALL open web masonry unit. Manufactured from recycled mineralized wood fiber from discarded pallets and small amounts of cement. It is dry stacked and filled with concrete. Potential fiber sources include removed invasive tree species such as maleluca in Florida. Slide87:  Anagypta SUPADURABLE is patterned wallcovering is made from 90% post-industrial waste recycled cotton. It must be primed and painted. Slide88:  Plastic lumber products using 100% recycled post-consumer HDPE. Applicable for exterior non-structural uses including car stops, decking, and furniture. Slide89:  Homosote roof decking made from 100% recycled newsprint cellulose. Treated against termites and fungi. Interior exposed as ceiling finish. Slide90:  Trex wood-plastic composite lumber, 100% recycled content using 50% post-industrial sawdust and 50% HDPE post-consumer plastic. Principally for exterior decking. Slide91:  Summitville Tile impervious glazed porcelain pavers use 30 - 50 % recycled feldspar mine tailings in the body of the tile. Slide92:  The Rastra system is a stay-in-place concrete forming system and uses 100% recycled expanded polystyrene (EPS) foam, ground into small beads and mixed with Portland cement. A proprietary additive helps with the mixing process. Rastra has some intriguing features, but estimates of the pollution associated with its manufacture show that it may not be significantly "greener" than many competing systems. Slide93:  Schuller International, Inc. of Denver, Colorado, has just introduced a new commercial fiberglass batt insulation that is produced with an acrylic binder, rather than thephenol-formaldehyde binder used with most fiberglass batt insulation. Grid-SHIELD Rx is designed for installation above suspended ceilings for both sound and thermal control. It is currently being test marketed and should be available nationally in a few months, though it will not be actively marketed initially. Within a year, two other products will be added to this line: Thermal-SHIELD Rx and Sound-SHIELD Rx for commercial-building thermal and acoustical insulation applications. Formaldehyne-Free Fiberglass Batt Insulation, Schuller Internnational, Ltd. Slide94:  Owens Corning, long famous for its pink fiberglass, has just introduced a new fiberglass. And it's white. The company calls their revolutionary Miraflex(TM) fiber "the first new form of glass fiber in nearly sixty years." It is produced by fusing two different types of glass together, which results in a curving, twisted fiber that is naturally springy. The product will be introduced in OC's R-25 (RSI 4.4) PinkPlus attic batts for the do-it-yourself market on a limited basis during the first quarter of this year. Miraflex Fiberglass Batts, Owens Corning Slide95:  Environ is a thermoset panel comprised of 40% recycled newspaper, 40% soy flour, and 20% other ingredients: mostly colorants plus a proprietary water-based catalyst that converts the soy flour into a resin. The resultant product is hard with the looks of polished granite and the workability of wood. Environ, Phenix Biocomposites Slide96:  Hume Hall to Rinker Hall: Deconstruction & Reuse Deconstruction:  Deconstruction Deconstructable Reinforced Concrete:  Deconstructable Reinforced Concrete MXB-5 System Conclusions:  Conclusions Rapid increase in types and numbers of materials responding to ‘greening’ of construction. But, rapid increase in questionable materials: composites, downcycled materials, PI waste But, but questions of durability, service life Too little emphasis on waste reduction De-emphasize downcycling in materials industries Critical need to redesign materials and buildings to foster reuse and recycling Materials issues the most difficult sustainability issue

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