Lecture18222

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Published on August 7, 2008

Source: slideshare.net

Description

a supplemental resource for students

The Properties of Mixtures: Solubility Lecture 18

Saturated solution contains the maximum amount of dissolved solute at a given temperature in the presence of undissolved solute.

A saturated solution

In a saturated solution, processes of dissolving and recrystallizing are in equilibrium: Solute (undissolved)  Solute (dissolved)

Equilibrium in a saturated solution

Supersaturated solution contains more than the equilibrium amount of dissolved solute. It is unstable.

Most solids are more soluble at higher temperatures. Solute + solvent + heat  saturated solution

Solid solubility vs temperature

Solid solubility vs temperature

Gases are more soluble at lower temperatures. Solute (g) + water (l)  saturated solution (aq) + heat

Gas solubility vs temperature

Why thermal pollution is bad: Because of increased metabolic rate, living organisms needs more oxygen. Because of lower solubility at the higher temperature, the concentration of oxygen is lower. Because of lower density at the higher temperature, warmer water floats on the cooler and prevent oxygen from reaching it.

Because of increased metabolic rate, living organisms needs more oxygen.

Because of lower solubility at the higher temperature, the concentration of oxygen is lower.

Because of lower density at the higher temperature, warmer water floats on the cooler and prevent oxygen from reaching it.

Gases are more soluble at higher pressures. Gas + solvent  saturated solution

The effect of pressure on gas solubility

Henry’s law: the solubility of a gas (S gas ) is directly proportional to the partial pressure of the gas (P gas ) above the solution: S gas = k H x P gas k H - Henry’s constant

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