lecture15 spring2005 POST

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Information about lecture15 spring2005 POST
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Published on January 10, 2008

Author: Rina

Source: authorstream.com

Tuesday Lecture – Sugar (cont.) Spices, Herbs, Perfumes:  Tuesday Lecture – Sugar (cont.) Spices, Herbs, Perfumes Reading: Textbook, Chapter 8 Sugar Cane – History:  Sugar Cane – History Sugar Cane – domesticated in New Guinea (?) 2992 B.C. – unrefined sugar being produced in India 642 A.D. – Arab-speaking peoples get sugar refining from Persia 11th Century - Crusaders bring sugar to Europe (1099 in England) Medieval times – Sugar = White Gold (1319 - $220/lb in England) 1493 – Columbus takes sugar cane to West Indies 1700’s – American “Sugar Triangle” (sugar, rum, slaves) 1700’s – Sugar taxation  Revolution 1800’s – Sugar beet provides competition in temperate areas Currently: sugar production subsidized, taxed, politicized Napoleon Sweetens the Pot – Sugar Beet:  Napoleon Sweetens the Pot – Sugar Beet Beta vulgaris – Chenopodiaceae (Goosefoot Family) Sugar Beet Processing:  Sugar Beet Processing Lewistown, Idaho Sugar Factory, 1905 Caption to Photo: 10 year old boys can be very useful North American Sweetener:  North American Sweetener Acer saccharum – Sugar Maple Maple Syrup :  Maple Syrup Sap is collected in early spring Sap is boiled in “sugar house” 40 gallons sap  1 gallon syrup Plant Flavors - More Terms:  Plant Flavors - More Terms Culinary Botanical Medicinal Herb leafy flavoring non-woody plant used in used in cooking plant medicine Spice flavoring derived -- -- from non-leaf part of tropical/subtropical plant Some Plant Chemistry:  Some Plant Chemistry Essential oil – [no single, precise definition] an aromatic liquid – responsible for flavors/odors Synonym – volatile oil Mostly terpenes, but some other compounds Volatile Organic Compounds are usually present as a mixture in natural materials Figure 8.2, p. 194 Location in Plants of Essential Oils:  Location in Plants of Essential Oils Typically occur in specialized cells, glands or vessels Tomato leaf – glands and hairs Figure 8.3, p. 196 Lavender (Lavendula) Peppermint (Mentha) History of Use of Spices & Herbs:  History of Use of Spices & Herbs 5200 yrs BP Embalming practiced in Egypt 4500 yrs BP Use of garlic and onions 3400 yrs BP Trade routes already established across Asia Figure 8.5, p. 198 History of Use of Spices & Herbs II:  History of Use of Spices & Herbs II 2400 yrs bp – Greeks used spices in medicine and food 2000 yrs bp – Roman empire had widespread use of spices 641-1096 AD – Dark Ages, European use of spices reduced 1096 AD – Crusades, spices rediscovered by Europeans 1400s – search for new trade routes and sources for spices 1606-1796 – Dutch dominate spice trade Figure 8.6, p. 199 Mediterranean Herbs & Spices:  Mediterranean Herbs & Spices Lamiaceae (=Labiatae) – Mint Family Figs. 8.7, 8.8, p. 200-201 Mediterranean Herbs & Spices:  Mediterranean Herbs & Spices Lamiaceae (=Labiatae) – Mint Family Figs. 8.7, 8.8, p. 200-201 Mediterranean Herbs & Spices:  Mediterranean Herbs & Spices Figs. 8.7, 8.8, p. 200-201 Mediterranean Herbs & Spices:  Mediterranean Herbs & Spices Figure 8.10, p. 203 Apiaceae (=Umbelliferae) – Carrot Family Apiaceae - Dill:  Apiaceae - Dill Figure 8.11, p. 204 Apiaceae – “Seeds”:  Apiaceae – “Seeds” anise caraway Figure 8.11, p. 204 Brassicaceae :  Brassicaceae Black mustard White mustard Figure 7.12, p. 167 Brassicaceae :  Brassicaceae Armoracia rusticana - horseradish Figure 8.12, p. 205 Glucosinolates:  Glucosinolates 2. Why overcooked broccoli tastes/smells bad: Sinigrin --> allyl isothiocyanate --> H2S (hydrogen sulfide) Organic compounds, contain sulfur In plant – combined with glucose (sugar)  harmless When cells rupture – mix with enzyme/water  produce isothiocyanate = “mustard oil” (note, is not “mustard gas”, which contains Cl also) 1. How cabbage butterflies find your cole crops - isothiocyanates

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