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Lecture14 Lin

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Published on October 16, 2007

Author: Mertice

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An Introduction to Information Retrieval and Question Answering:  An Introduction to Information Retrieval and Question Answering Jimmy Lin College of Information Studies University of Maryland Wednesday, December 8, 2004 The Information Retrieval Cycle:  The Information Retrieval Cycle Source Selection Search Selection Examination Delivery Query Formulation Supporting the Search Process:  Supporting the Search Process Source Selection Search Query Selection Ranked List Examination Documents Delivery Documents Query Formulation Resource Indexing Index Acquisition Collection Types of Information Needs:  Types of Information Needs Ad hoc retrieval: find me documents “like this” Question answering Who discovered Oxygen? When did Hawaii become a state? Where is Ayer’s Rock located? What team won the World Series in 1992? Identify positive accomplishments of the Hubble telescope since it was launched in 1991. Compile a list of mammals that are considered to be endangered, identify their habitat and, if possible, specify what threatens them. What countries export oil? Name U.S. cities that have a “Shubert” theater. Who is Aaron Copland? What is a quasar? “Factoid” “List” “Definition” IR is an Experimental Science!:  IR is an Experimental Science! Formulate a research question, the hypothesis Design an experiment to answer the question Perform the experiment Compare with a baseline “control” Does the experiment answer the question? Are the results significant? Report the results! Rinse, repeat… What experiments?:  What experiments? Example “questions”: Does morphological analysis improve retrieval performance? Does expanding the query with synonyms improve retrieval performance? Corresponding experiments: Build a “stemmed” index and compare against “unstemmed” baseline Expand queries with synonyms and compare against baseline unexpanded query. What’s missing here? IR Test Collections:  IR Test Collections Three components of a test collection: Collection of documents (corpus) Set of information needs (topics) Sets of documents that satisfy the information needs (relevance judgments) Metrics for assessing “performance” Precision Recall Other measures derived therefrom Where do they come from?:  Where do they come from? TREC = Text REtrieval Conferences Series of annual evaluations, started in 1992 Organized into “tracks” Test collections are formed by “pooling” Gather results from all participants Corpus/topics/judgments can be reused Roots of Question Answering:  Roots of Question Answering Information Retrieval (IR) Information Extraction (IE) Information Retrieval (IR):  Information Retrieval (IR) Can substitute “document” for “information” IR systems Use statistical methods Rely on frequency of words in query, document, collection Retrieve complete documents Return ranked lists of “hits” based on relevance Limitations Answers questions indirectly Does not attempt to understand the “meaning” of user’s query or documents in the collection Information Extraction (IE):  Information Extraction (IE) IE systems Identify documents of a specific type Extract information according to pre-defined templates Place the information into frame-like database records Templates = pre-defined questions Extracted information = answers Limitations Templates are domain dependent and not easily portable One size does not fit all! Weather disaster: Type Date Location Damage Deaths ... Central Idea of Factoid QA:  Central Idea of Factoid QA Determine the semantic type of the expected answer Retrieve documents that have keywords from the question Look for named-entities of the proper type near keywords “Who won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1991?” is looking for a PERSON Retrieve documents that have the keywords “won”, “Nobel Peace Prize”, and “1991” Look for a PERSON near the keywords “won”, “Nobel Peace Prize”, and “1991” An Example:  An Example But many foreign investors remain sceptical, and western governments are withholding aid because of the Slorc's dismal human rights record and the continued detention of Ms Aung San Suu Kyi, the opposition leader who won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1991. The military junta took power in 1988 as pro-democracy demonstrations were sweeping the country. It held elections in 1990, but has ignored their result. It has kept the 1991 Nobel peace prize winner, Aung San Suu Kyi - leader of the opposition party which won a landslide victory in the poll - under house arrest since July 1989. The regime, which is also engaged in a battle with insurgents near its eastern border with Thailand, ignored a 1990 election victory by an opposition party and is detaining its leader, Ms Aung San Suu Kyi, who was awarded the 1991 Nobel Peace Prize. According to the British Red Cross, 5,000 or more refugees, mainly the elderly and women and children, are crossing into Bangladesh each day. Who won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1991? Generic QA Architecture:  Generic QA Architecture Question Analyzer Document Retriever Passage Retriever Answer Extractor NL question IR Query Documents Passages Answers Answer Type Question analysis:  Question analysis Question word cues Who  person, organization, location (e.g., city) When  date Where  location What/Why/How  ?? Head noun cues What city, which country, what year... Which astronaut, what blues band, ... Scalar adjective cues How long, how fast, how far, how old, ... Using WordNet:  Using WordNet wingspan length diameter radius altitude ceiling What is the service ceiling of an U-2? NUMBER Extracting Named Entities:  Extracting Named Entities Person: Mr. Hubert J. Smith, Adm. McInnes, Grace Chan Title: Chairman, Vice President of Technology, Secretary of State Country: USSR, France, Haiti, Haitian Republic City: New York, Rome, Paris, Birmingham, Seneca Falls Province: Kansas, Yorkshire, Uttar Pradesh Business: GTE Corporation, FreeMarkets Inc., Acme University: Bryn Mawr College, University of Iowa Organization: Red Cross, Boys and Girls Club More Named Entities:  More Named Entities Currency: 400 yen, $100, DM 450,000 Linear: 10 feet, 100 miles, 15 centimeters Area: a square foot, 15 acres Volume: 6 cubic feet, 100 gallons Weight: 10 pounds, half a ton, 100 kilos Duration: 10 day, five minutes, 3 years, a millennium Frequency: daily, biannually, 5 times, 3 times a day Speed: 6 miles per hour, 15 feet per second, 5 kph Age: 3 weeks old, 10-year-old, 50 years of age How do we extract NEs?:  How do we extract NEs? Heuristics and patterns Fixed-lists (gazetteers) Machine learning approaches Answer Type Hierarchy:  Answer Type Hierarchy Does it work?:  Does it work? Where do lobsters like to live? on a Canadian airline Where do hyenas live? in Saudi Arabia in the back of pick-up trucks Where are zebras most likely found? near dumps in the dictionary Why can't ostriches fly? Because of American economic sanctions What’s the population of Maryland? three Limitations?:  Limitations? Conclusion:  Conclusion Question answering is an exciting research area! Lies at the intersection of information retrieval and natural language processing A real-world application of NLP technologies The dream: a vast repository of knowledge we can “talk to” We’re a long way from there…

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