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Lecture12 spring05 POST

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Published on March 6, 2008

Author: luie

Source: authorstream.com

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Thursday Lecture – Legumes continued:  Thursday Lecture – Legumes continued Reading: Textbook, Chapter 6 Legumes – Changes Under Domestication:  Legumes – Changes Under Domestication Annual habit, selfing breeding system Less seed scattering Greater seed size Synchronous fruiting Loss of dormancy - question: which came first, domestication or loss of dormancy? Major Legume Food Crops - Pulses:  Major Legume Food Crops - Pulses Pulses: dried legume seeds used for food Near East: lentils, peas, chick-peas, broad beans Far East: soybean, pigeon pea Africa: cowpeas Mexico: common bean, lima bean South America: common bean, lima bean, peanut Near Eastern Pulses – 1. Lentils:  Near Eastern Pulses – 1. Lentils Lens culinaris – genus name refers to shape of seeds Near Eastern Pulses – 2. Peas:  Near Eastern Pulses – 2. Peas Pisum sativum – used as food since ancient times (8-9,000 yrs ago) and domesticated by about 5,800 yrs ago. Peas – porridge or green:  Peas – porridge or green Pease porridge hot Pease porridge cold Pease porridge in the pot Nine days old 1600s – first use as fresh green vegetable (Holland) Specialized peas: snow peas, sugar snap peas – bred so that pods are edible in entirely, have high sugar levels Near Eastern Pulses – 3. Broad Beans:  Near Eastern Pulses – 3. Broad Beans Vicia faba – from Mediterranean region, cultivated 8800 yrs ago. Favism – type of anemia, aggravated in susceptible individual by Vicia alkaloids Near Eastern Pulses – 4. Chick-Peas:  Near Eastern Pulses – 4. Chick-Peas “cow-without-bones” - soybean:  “cow-without-bones” - soybean Glycine max – domesticated in China >3000 yrs ago. The “Cinderella Crop”:  The “Cinderella Crop” U.S. – introduced as crop in 1765 1920s – used for fruit rather than just forage Soybeans contain a trypsin inhibitor, destroyed by heating Soybean Products:  Soybean Products Oriental Foodstuffs: Miso, Tofu, Tempeh, Soy Milk, Soy Sauce Soybean Oil – widely used Soy proteins – used in many products Soy lecithin – widely used in chocolate products Non-food uses: inks, plastics, cleaners Roundup - Glyphosphate:  Roundup - Glyphosphate Herbicide – chemical structure: Mode of action: blocks synthesis of certain amino acids (aromatic amino acids produced by the shikimic acid pathway) Toxic to most plants, but not to animals Note: can still be toxic to animals, not just the active chemical but other components of the formulation Monsanto Chemical Company – major moneymaker – while under patent protection Monsanto - post-Roundup:  Monsanto - post-Roundup Next stage  produce genetically modified crops that are resistant to glyphosphate Source of resistance: microorganisms, have enzyme that is resistant to glyphosphate Microorganisms or plants, find enzymes that alter glyphosphate structure to make it harmless Using (1) – Monsanto has created crops that are resistant to glyphosphate “Roundup Ready” First Major Target: Soybeans, very successful Can spray crop after germination, kill weeds but crop little affected Roundup Ready Wheat:  Roundup Ready Wheat The Latest Battlefield in the “Biotech Wars”: Roundup Ready Crops: corn, soybeans, cotton None of these have major use in human consumption Roundup Ready Wheat: produced and marketed by Monsanto major use of wheat = human food major export crop ( Japan, Europe) Worry: if any farmers grown GM Wheat, some importers (Japan) will ban all wheat from U.S.  all farmers will lose this market Other Old World Pulses:  Other Old World Pulses Pigeon peas, Cajanus cajan – from India Black-eyed peas (Cowpeas), Vigna unguiculata – from Africa, in U.S. considered to be southern regional specialty New World Beans – 1. Lima Beans:  New World Beans – 1. Lima Beans Phaeolus lunata – Mexico to Peru, independently domesticated in the two areas. Mostly used dry. Wild plants and some cultivars contain cyanogenic glycosides – release toxic cyanide (cooking destroys compounds) New World Beans – 2. Common Beans:  New World Beans – 2. Common Beans Phaseolus vulgaris – source of many types Another independent domesticate in Mexico and South America Beans, Beans, Beans:  Beans, Beans, Beans Selection for the variations in the seed in color and size have produced a bewildering number of variants, several of which have widespread use in our country. Kidney bean Black bean Pinto bean Another New World Legume - Peanut:  Another New World Legume - Peanut Arachis hypogaea – peanut, ground nut, goober central South America The Underground Crop:  The Underground Crop Forage Legumes – Sitting in the Clover:  Forage Legumes – Sitting in the Clover Alfalfa – Medicago sativa - king of forage crops – associated with horse husbandry Clovers – Trifolium Sweet Clovers – Melilotus Lespedeza Tuesday Lecture – Leaf, Stem and Root Crops:  Tuesday Lecture – Leaf, Stem and Root Crops Reading: Textbook, Chapter 7

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