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Information about lecture02

Published on March 19, 2008

Author: Melissa1

Source: authorstream.com

Destination Management:  Destination Management Lecture 2 University of Applied Sciences Stralsund Leisure and Tourism Management WS 2006/2007 Summary of the last lecture:  Summary of the last lecture Attractions in general - encourage visitors to region, no tourism without ~, … Attractions defined - a designated permanent resource … Typology of attractions - natural, man made, special events Terms and interrelations - attractions and destinations, … Classification of attractions - catchment area, size, ownership, … still Part One:  still Part One Sets the context by defining attractions, looking at their role in tourism, examining the attraction product and market, and outlining the business environment of attractions The Role of Attractions in Tourism:  The Role of Attractions in Tourism Reasons for growth in visitor attractions:  Reasons for growth in visitor attractions Increased disposable income; More leisure time; Advances in transport; Education; Media images; Increased marketing. Part One \ The role ... What are some of the trends effecting attractions?:  What are some of the trends effecting attractions? Ageing population; Desire for an educational experience; Cultural and historic preservation; Other Trends: - Changing technology (miniaturisation, computer effects); - “Now” Generation (instant gratification); - Disposable society; - Changing sociographics (changing traditional family structures.) Part One \ The role ... History of attractions:  History of attractions Most initially used for other purposes; Religious shrines motivated travel during medieval times; Growing cultural interest during the Renaissance; Grand Tour in 18th & 19th Century; 20th Century saw the beginning of created attractions and events. Part One \ The role ... \ History of attractions Swarbrooke's development of destinations:  Swarbrooke's development of destinations Single attraction; Embryonic destination: - Services develop around the single attraction; Developed single market destination: - Other attractions, designed for same market; Diversified destination: - Other attractions, designed designed for new markets. Part One \ The role ... \ Attractions and other sectors of tourism Transport:  Transport networks make attractions physically accessible Road links are by far the most important type Attractions often lead to the development of new public transportation services Good on-site transport networks encourage visitors to use as many attractions as possible Innovative on-site transport modes are often recognized as an attraction in their own right Transport Part One \ The role ... \ Attractions and other sectors of tourism Tour operation:  Tour operation Attractions are vitally important for packaging holidays Excursions, taken away from the base destination, are a valuable source of income for tour operators; - a number of attraction within a short range desirable - attractions should be different from the main attraction - off-peak season depends on availability of sufficient attr. Dynamic Packaging ?! - driving forces: low cost carriers, broadband internet - new travel agents like expedia and lastminute Part One \ The role ... \ Attractions and other sectors of tourism Economic impact of attractions:  Economic impact of attractions Positive - provide government with income by: - taxes paid by employees - VAT paid on bought items - direct income from governmental owned attractions - provide directly and indirectly jobs - foreign currency from overseas visitors (major attractions) Negative - Jobs are often poorly paid - Many local authority owned attractions lose money! - Opportunity costs when losing money Part One \ The role ... \ The impact of attractions Environmental impact of attractions:  Environmental impact of attractions Natural and non-tourist purpose man made attractions: Visitors often cause problems on the attraction itself Tourist purpose man made attractions and special events: Visitors often cause problems on the environment Pollution, destruction, often high consumption of land, water and energy Minimizing environmental impact is an important managerial task (Reinvesting Income …) Income from attractions is sometimes the only way to conserve / protect environment Part One \ The role ... \ The impact of attractions Sociocultural impact of attractions:  Sociocultural impact of attractions Huge numbers of visitors can ruin the atmosphere Conflicts between visitors and ‘normal users’ of non-tourist purpose attractions (Churches, cathedrals, beaches …) The character of religious and traditional events may suffer from too many spectators Less reflected needs and desires of local people (e.g. Sea Resort “Heiligendamm”) Improve health of people by providing recreation Kind of compensation to stressful jobs and daily life Part One \ The role ... \ The impact of attractions The Attraction Product:  The Attraction Product What is a product?:  What is a product? Part One \ The attraction product A product is anything that can be offered to a market for attention, acquisition, use, or consumption that might satisfy a want or a need. It includes physical objects, services, persons, places, organisations, and ideas. Kotler, 1994 A product is an offering of an business entity as it is perceived by both present and potential customers. It is a bundle of benefits designed to satisfy the needs and wants, and to solve the problems of, specified target markets. A product is composed of both tangible and intangible elements: it may be as concrete as a chair or dinner plate or abstract as ‚a feeling‘. The utility derives from what it does for the customer. Lewis and Chambers, 1989 Tangible and intangible elements:  Roller coaster Wooden constr. Seats Passengers Screams Fear Excitement Tangible and intangible elements Part One \ The attraction product Cathedral Chairs Burning candles Visitors Silence Atmosphere Spiritual value The visitor attraction as a service product:  The visitor attraction as a service product Part One \ The attraction product The staff is part of the product itself Customers are involved in the production process Service products are not standardized The product is perishable and cannot be stored There is no tangible product to carry home The surrounding of the production process is a feature of the service The three levels of the attraction product:  The three levels of the attraction product Part One \ The attraction product (After Kotler, 1994) Attractions and the product life-cycle:  Attractions and the product life-cycle Part One \ The attraction product Public and voluntary operated attractions may never ‘die’! Decline phase for the Pyramids?! Competitors?! Relaunch of natural attractions?! The Visitor Attraction Market:  The Visitor Attraction Market The visitor attraction market:  The visitor attraction market Part One \ The visitor attraction market Success of an attraction depends on the market respond There is no single attraction market to be defined, identified and measured Market research is weak as: - private sector dominates ownership of attractions - we know little why people visit attractions at all - many attractions lack in sufficient monitoring systems Market segmentation:  Market segmentation Part One \ The visitor attraction market Geographical - … where the visitors live / come from Demographics - age, sex, race … Psychographic - attitudes and opinion coming from social class, lifestyle… Behavioristic - relationship with the product, benefits sought Market segmentation, e.g. demographic / age:  Market segmentation, e.g. demographic / age Part One \ The visitor attraction market Child New experiences; Other children to play with. Paternal guidance and support Teenager New experiences, Excitement, Status, More independence from parents, other teenagers, active participation Young adult New experiences, freedom of action, other young adults, active participation Young couple New experiences, romance, solitude Young couple with baby facilities for babies, convinience for people with babies Growing family Economy – e.g. family ticket, something for all the family Empty nesters Chance to learn something, more passive participation Elderly Whatching rather than doing, economy, company of other people, easy accessibility for people with mobility problems The Business Environment:  The Business Environment The business environment and visitor attractions:  The business environment and visitor attractions Part One \ The business environment Macro - environment - general societal forces on a national or international scale - strong influence but not controlled by organization - P E S T (PEST - Analysis) Micro – environment - 5 main components: organisational structure, suppliers, marketing intermediaries, customers, competitors, - can be influenced or controlled by organization … a complex web, changing constantly over time Macro-environment:  Macro-environment Part One \ The business environment Political factors - cover all actions of governmental bodies Ecomnomic factors - influencing the attr. Market > disposable income - influencing attr. Product > inflation, interest rates Sociocultural factors - demographic and cultural trends, consumer behavior Technological factors - influence product, management and competition Micro-environment:  Micro-environment Part One \ The business environment Organization - management structure and style, company culture, arrangement of functions Suppliers - F&B, Souvenirs, services for running the attraction Marketing intermediaries - tourist information, tour operators, travel writers Customers - existing customers are potential marketing intermediaries Competitors - difficult to identify competitors; but once identified to be evaluated: - main product, targeted market, strength & weaknesses, future plans Macro environment – two examples:  Macro environment – two examples Part One \ The business environment Micro environment – two examples:  Micro environment – two examples Part One \ The business environment

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