lecture ten july 29aug3.ppt

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Published on November 26, 2008

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BECOMING AN ADULT : BECOMING AN ADULT Chapter Ten LECTURE OVERVIEW : LECTURE OVERVIEW Beginning of Adulthood Physical Health and Development Cognitive Development Personality in Adulthood Personality Disorders INTRODUCTION : INTRODUCTION When does adulthood begin? Do we have a definition? One transition: post-secondary education Changes in cognition WHEN DOES ADULTHOOD BEGIN??? : WHEN DOES ADULTHOOD BEGIN??? TRANSITIONS : TRANSITIONS Hard to define when adulthood occurs In Western Cultures: Role transitions: assuming new responsibilities and duties Age experienced: large individual variation, also large cohort variation Con’t…. : Con’t…. Cultural variations in role transitions clearer in other cultures “boys become men”: provide, protect, impregnate “girls become women”: typically menarche rites of passage: marking initiation into adulthood GOING TO COLLEGE : GOING TO COLLEGE 65% of high school graduates in US go to college Average of college student = 29 Returning adult students: over age of 25 implies have reached adulthood problem solvers, self-directed, pragmatic have relevant life experiences PSYCHOLOGICAL VIEWS : PSYCHOLOGICAL VIEWS Cognitively: differ from adolescents Drop in risk-taking behaviours Increase in self-control and social compliance From concern with identity to: autonomy and intimacy Con’t…. : Con’t…. Intimacy versus Isolation once identity is established: ready to create a shared identity studies support and refute this concept gender differences WHEN IS ADULTHOOD? : WHEN IS ADULTHOOD? Between age 18 to 25 is a distinct life stage? “thresholders”??? Based on economic/financial situations In 20s: far from an easy life stage Is Britney Spears an adult? PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT AND HEALTH : PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT AND HEALTH GROWTH, STRENGTH, ETC. : GROWTH, STRENGTH, ETC. Reach peak height Physical strength peaks in late 20s and 30s Coordination and dexterity Sensory & visual acuity Endurance?? Peaks a little later Hearing declines in late 20s HEALTH : HEALTH Fairly healthy during this period of life Death from disease is rare Leading causes of death? accidents Gender and ethnic differences Men more likely to die than women Men = auto accidents; Women = cancer African American, Latino > European American European American < Asian and Pacific Islanders LIFESTYLE FACTORS : LIFESTYLE FACTORS Smoking: Single biggest contributor to health problems Half of all cancers are related to smoking Danger of second hand smoke Large relapse rate when quitting But.. quitting has enormous health benefits Con’t….LIFESTYLE FACTORS : Con’t….LIFESTYLE FACTORS Drinking Alcohol > 70% drank alcohol in last month Total consumption of alcohol is declining Binge drinking: more troublesome 1/13 adults are alcoholics or abuse alcohol More men than women Highest among younger adults ADDICTION! THEORIES OF ADDICTION : THEORIES OF ADDICTION 1. Physical dependence (internal need) 2. Positive incentive theory (anticipated effects) * CAN WE BE ADDICTED TO THINGS OTHER THAN DRUGS? BIOPSYCHOSOCIAL THEORY : BIOPSYCHOSOCIAL THEORY 1. Positive reinforcement of drug 2. Stimuli conditioned to drug effects 3. Cues effects of the drug 4. Aversive consequences of taking the drug ADDICTION/DEPENDENCE : ADDICTION/DEPENDENCE DSM-IV substance dependence: 3 of following in 12 month period: tolerance withdrawal symptoms increasing doses unsuccessful effort to cut down intake much time spent obtaining or using the drug interference with social, occupation, or recreational activities continued use despite recognition of problems ADDICTIVE DRUGS : ADDICTIVE DRUGS Self-administered: alcohol amphetamine barbituates caffeine cocaine nicotine opiates procaine* phenylcyclidine (PCP) THC Not self-administered: imipramine mescaline* phenothiazines scopolamine TOLERANCE & SENSITIZATION : TOLERANCE & SENSITIZATION Tolerance: decreased state of sensitivity to a drug resulting from exposure Sensitization: increased state of sensitivity to a drug resulting from exposure 2 ways to demonstrate: 1. Given dose has less/more effect 2. Takes more/less drug to have an effect * shift in dose response curve TOLERANCE.. con’t : TOLERANCE.. con’t “cross tolerance” can occur for some effects and not others adaptive changes: homeostasis metabolic tolerance: reduces amount getting to sites of action functional tolerance: changes the reactivity of sites of action WITHDRAWAL & DEPENDENCE : WITHDRAWAL & DEPENDENCE sudden elimination of drug: withdrawal symptoms almost always opposite of initial effects of drug signs of physical dependence * not all physical: learning component as well BASIC PRINCIPLES OF DRUG ACTION : BASIC PRINCIPLES OF DRUG ACTION Slide 24: Aversive effects Discriminative (cue) effects + reinforcing effects neural mechanisms monoamines neuropeptides Modulating Variables social context genetic factors behavioural history pharmacological history Drug Seeking Behaviour Stimuli conditioned to effects of drugs Behavioural Mechanisms euphoria (+) anxiety relief functional enhancement relief from withdrawal + - Feldman, Meyer, & Quenzer, 1997 BASIC DRUG ACTION : BASIC DRUG ACTION Influence subjective experience & behaviour blood stream carries drug to CNS blood-brain barrier (BBB) Actions: diffusely bind to specific receptors influence synthesis, transport, release, or deactivation of NTs activate postsynaptic receptors PRINCIPLE PROCESSES : PRINCIPLE PROCESSES 1. Route of administration 2. Absorption and distribution 3. Binding 4. Inactivation 5. Excretion ROUTE OF ADMINISTRATION : ROUTE OF ADMINISTRATION Determines how much drug reaches its site of action and how quickly the drug effect occurs 1. Intravenous injection 2. Intramuscular injection 3. Subcutaneous administration: injection or pellet 4. Intraperitoneal injection 5. Oral administration 6. Sublingual administration 7. Inhalation 8. Topical Application 9. Intracranial Administration COMMON NEURAL MECHANISM? : COMMON NEURAL MECHANISM? different sites of action final common pathway? reinforcing effects: addictive increased DA overflow in NAcc other NTs? circuit model: incorporates many areas and NTs REINFORCEMENT : REINFORCEMENT Increase the effect of dopamine in the mesolimbic system (VTA  NAcc) all reinforcers increase release of DA in the NAcc DA from NAcc: reinforcing stimulation to VTA Stimulation Experiment http://salmon.psy.plym.ac.uk/year3/psy337DrugAddiction/theorydrugaddiction.htm Slide 30: EXPERIMENT: stimulation of the VTA and collection at the NAcc http://salmon.psy.plym.ac.uk/year1/bbb.htm Slide 31: http://salmon.psy.plym.ac.uk/year1/bbb.htm DOPAMINE & REWARD : DOPAMINE & REWARD originally thought to increase “pleasure” DA not critical for reinforcement once task is learned: neural substrate for novelty or reward expectation? DA is involved in many of the aspects (ie. effects, chronic problems, etc.) of drug reward and addiction Con’t…. : Con’t…. intracranial stimulation: of substantia nigra and VTA increase responding highest responding in areas with highest DA neurons DA agonists increase & DA antagonists decrease lesions disrupt conditioned place preference CLASSES OF DRUGS : CLASSES OF DRUGS CNS depressants alcohol, hypnotics (barbituates), anxiolytics CNS stimulants amphetamine, cocaine, caffeine, nicotine, Ritalin, weight-loss products Opiates heroin, morphine, methadone, prescription pain killers Con’t... : Con’t... Cannabinoids marijuanan, hashish Hallucinogens LSD, mescaline, psilocybin Others PCP NUTRITION : NUTRITION Affects mental, emotional, and physical well-being Linked to cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, anemia, and digestive disorders Requirements and eating habits change across life span Differences in metabolism SOCIAL, GENDER, & ETHNIC ISSUES : SOCIAL, GENDER, & ETHNIC ISSUES Social factors: SES and education Gender: not clear women do live longer Ethnic Group: inner city = poorest health racism, poverty = stress COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT : COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT HOW IS INTELLIGENCE VIEWED IN ADULTS? : HOW IS INTELLIGENCE VIEWED IN ADULTS? Multidimensional: like theories? Remember: Gardner, Sternberg, etc. Con’t…. : Con’t…. Hierarchical View of Intelligence general and specific components Con’t…. : Con’t…. Fluid: sequential and quantitative reasoning, induction Crystallized: language General memory & learning: memory span, associative memory Broad visual: visualization, spatial relations, closure speed Con’t…. : Con’t…. Broad auditory: speech sound discrimination, general sound discrimination Broad retrieval: creativity, ideational fluency, naming facility Broad cognitive speediness: rate of test taking, numerical facility, perceptual speed Processing speed: simple reaction time, choice reaction time, semantic processing speed Con’t…. Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences : Con’t…. Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences Linguistic Logical-mathematical Spatial Musical Bodily-kinesthetic Interpersonal Intrapersonal Naturalistic Existential Con’t…. Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences : Con’t…. Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences Linguistic Logical-mathematical Spatial Psychometric theories linguistic develops before others each intelligence is regulated to an area of the brain Con’t…. : Con’t…. Other Intelligence Theories Social Cognitive Flexibility - skill in solving social problems with relevant social knowledge Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory componential subtheory experiential subtheory contextual subtheory HOW IS INTELLIGENCE VIEWED IN ADULTS? : HOW IS INTELLIGENCE VIEWED IN ADULTS? Multidimensional: like theories? Remember: Gardner, Sternberg, etc. Others…. Con’t…. : Con’t…. Life-span perspective Mutlidirectionality Interindividual variability Plasticity WHAT HAPPENS? : WHAT HAPPENS? Formal testing vs. Assessing practical skills Primary Abilities number, word fluency, verbal meaning, inductive reasoning, spatial orientation improve until early 40s then slowly decline Con’t…. : Con’t…. How do we reduce the decline?? Absence of chronic disease Good living environment Cognitively active Flexible personality style Married to someone of high cognitive status Satisfied with one’s achievements Con’t…. : Con’t…. Secondary Abilities ex. fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence somewhat based on each other fluid declines while crystallized improves harder to learn with age, but more knowledge Con’t…. : Con’t…. Beyond Formal Operations? Thought process is different in adulthood considering situational, contextual issues Postformal Thought truth can vary across situations Con’t…. : Con’t…. Stages of Reflective Judgement Absolute truth Truth via authority Temporary uncertainty Justified by reference, but idiosyncratic Contextual and subjective Personally constructed Probabilities on evidence Con’t…. : Con’t…. Stages of Reflective Judgement… Optimal level of development Skill acquisition Other theories: Absolutist, Relativistic, Dialectical Con’t…. : Con’t…. Adult thinking: integrating emotion and logic Adolescents: too much emotion Not so much logic as emotional and pragmatic ex. resolving relationship difficulties STEREOTYPES IN ADULTS : STEREOTYPES IN ADULTS Social knowledge structures and social beliefs Stereotypes: organized prior knowledge not always negative! overlearned, so spontaneously activated? implicit stereotypes stereotype threat Con’t…. : Con’t…. Implicit Social Beliefs content, strength, likelihood of automatic activiation Age differences Situational differences PERSONALITY : PERSONALITY CREATING SCENARIOS : CREATING SCENARIOS Life-span construct: past, present, future identity, values, society Scenario: expectations Social clock: biological clock? Life story: past events Autobiographical memories assimilation and accomodation Slide 59: IDENTITY IDENTITY ASSIMILATION POSSIBLE SELVES : POSSIBLE SELVES Projecting into future: possibilities Age differences? fewer domains with age but, more behaviors to support possible selves Younger: family issues Middle: personal issues Older: family issues, but different focus Oldest: personal issues SELF-CONCEPT : SELF-CONCEPT Incorporating scenario/life story into sense of self Little change in self-concept with age earlier self-concept is predictive Ethnic group/cultural attachment PERSONAL CONTROL BELIEFS : PERSONAL CONTROL BELIEFS Degree of control over situations High versus low sense of control Important for personality and memory 4 types: Within oneself Over oneself Over environment From the environment Con’t…. : Con’t…. Primary control: affecting external world based on biological factors Secondary control: behaviour or cognition aimed at internal world Less primary and more secondary with age PERSONALITY AND ITS DISORDERS : PERSONALITY AND ITS DISORDERS PERSONALITY : PERSONALITY WHAT IS PERSONALITY? Relative stability from childhood temperament Depends on circumstances Whether negative or positive trait Whether trait will be expressed Con’t…. : Con’t…. 5 factor model: Neuroticism Extraversion Openness to Experience Agreeableness Conscientiousness * all along continuums PERSONALITY DISORDERS : PERSONALITY DISORDERS Generally: Social and occupational disruptions Defined: based on what’s acceptable Hardest to diagnose and hard to treat No distress over symptoms Much co-morbidity among disorders Con’t…. : Con’t…. Cluster A: asocial, odd, and/or eccentric Cluster B: flamboyant, dramatic, emotional, and/or erratic Cluster C: anxious, fearful, and/or lack of emotional warmth Con’t…. Cluster A : Con’t…. Cluster A Paranoid: distrust, suspicious, overreact low extraversion, low openness, very low agreeableness Schizoid: restricted range of emotions, social isolation, loners very low extraversion Schizotypal: discomfort with relationships, cognitive & perceptual distortions, peculiar behaviour, bizarre fantasies very high neuroticism, very low extraversion, high openness Con’t…. Cluster B : Con’t…. Cluster B Antisocial: frequent violation of rights of others; impulsive, aggressive, reckless low neuroticism, very low agreeableness and conscientiousness Borderline: instability of relationships, self-image, emotions, and control over impulses very high neuroticism, high extraversion, low agreeableness and conscientiousness Con’t…. : Con’t…. Histronic: excessive emotionality and attention seeking high neuroticism, extraversion, and openness, low conscientiouness Narcissistic: grandiosity, need for admiration, lack of empathy high neuroticism, extraversion, and conscientiousness, very low agreeableness Con’t…. Cluster C : Con’t…. Cluster C Avoidant: social inhibition very high neuroticism and very low extraversion Dependent: excessive need of care very high neuroticism and agreeableness, high extraversion Obsessive-Compulsive: preoccupation with perfection, orderliness high neuroticism, low extraversion and openness, and very high conscientiousness Con’t…. : Con’t…. Much overlap of traits among disorders Prevalence: not clear High among psychiatric patients Role of biology and environment some sort of role of genetics but… since large of role of social aspects

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