Lecture One

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Information about Lecture One

Published on March 13, 2008

Author: Mertice

Source: authorstream.com

Map of Europe, 1715:  Map of Europe, 1715 17th Century European Constitutions:  17th Century European Constitutions The Ancien Régime:  The Ancien Régime Absolutism 16th-17th Century Political Background Theorists: Bossuet, Hobbes System of Privilege Clergy, Nobility, Commoners Louis XIV by H. Rigaud Chateau de Versailles:  Chateau de Versailles A Few Figures 800 hectares (2,000 acres) of grounds 20 kilometres (12 miles) of roads 46 kilometres (27 miles) of trellises 200,000 trees 210,000 flowers planted every year 132 kilometres (80 miles) of rows of trees 23 hectares (55 acres): surface area of the Grand Canal 5.57 kilometres (3.3 miles): perimeter of the Grand Canal 20 kilometres (12 miles) of enclosing walls 50 fountains 620 fountain nozzles 35 kilometres (21 miles) of water conduits 11 hectares (26 acres) of roof 51,210 square meters of floors 2,153 windows 700 rooms 67 staircases 6,000 paintings 1,500 drawings and 15,000 engravings 2,100 sculptures 5,000 items of furniture and objets d'art 150 varieties of apple and peach trees The Enlightenment:  The Enlightenment The Philosophes Baron de Montesquieu (1689-1755) François Marie Arouet Voltaire (1694-1778) Denis Diderot (1713-84) Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-78) The Scottish Enlightenment:  The Scottish Enlightenment Adam Smith (1723-90) The Wealth of Nations, 1776 Laws of Supply and Demand The ‘Invisible Hand’ of competition Laissez-faire The Origins of the French Revolution: The Noble Revolt:  The Origins of the French Revolution: The Noble Revolt Necker’s Budget Taxation Reform Noble Demands Doubling the Third and Vote by Head Elections and the Cahiers Abbé Sieyes, What is the Third Estate? Jacques Necker (1732-1804) Necker Gambles with the King:  Necker Gambles with the King The Two-headed Monster:  The Two-headed Monster King Louis XVI and Queen Marie-Antoinette The People under the Old Régime:  The People under the Old Régime The Awakening of the Third Estate:  The Awakening of the Third Estate Workers & the Economy, 1788-9:  I. Price of Bread in Sous II. % of Income Spent on Bread, 1789 (@ 9, 14.5, 13.5, 12 sous per loaf) Workers & the Economy, 1788-9 From Third Estate to National Assembly, 1789:  From Third Estate to National Assembly, 1789 National Assembly, June 17, 1789 Tennis Court Oath, June 20, 1789 Storming of the Bastille, 14 July 1789 The Great Fear The Night of August 4th: Abolition of privileges End of “feudalism” View of the Siege and Storming of the Bastille, Jean-Pierre Houel © Photothèque des musées de la Ville de Paris Jacques-Louis David: Painter of the Revolution:  Jacques-Louis David: Painter of the Revolution The Oath of the Tennis Court Participants in the Storming of the Bastille, 1789:  Participants in the Storming of the Bastille, 1789 662 Total Arrests Joiners (49) Cabinet-Makers (48) Locksmiths (41) Shoe-makers (28) Shopkeeper Assistants (22) Gauze Makers (22) Sculptors (20) The Great Fear, 1789:  The Great Fear, 1789 The Liberal Revolution:  The Liberal Revolution Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen: Written Constitution Equality before the Law Freedom of Speech, Press, Association and Religion Meritocracy Private Property War and Revolution:  War and Revolution Legislative Assembly, 1791-2 France declares war on Austria: 20 April 1792 Brunswick Manifesto: 25 July 1792 Paris Commune: 10 August 1792 The sans-culottes movement National Convention (Sept. 1792-July 1794) Girondins v. Mountain Monarchy Abolished Republic Founded King Guillotined, January 1793 J.-L. David, Sketch of Marie Antoinette:  J.-L. David, Sketch of Marie Antoinette Songs of the Revolution:  Songs of the Revolution It'll Be Okay Translation Popular during the early years of the Revolution, this song's lively tune and repetitive chorus expressed revolutionaries' hopefulness about the future. The Marseillaise (War Song for the Army of the Rhine) Translation Joseph Rouget de Lisle, 1792. Gillaume Guillon Lethière, The Fatherland in Danger Ca Ira (It’ll be O.K.):  Ca Ira (It’ll be O.K.) “It’ll be O.K., it’ll be O.K., it’ll be O.K." Let's string up the aristocrats on the lampposts! "It’ll be O.K., it’ll be O.K., it’ll be O.K," We'll string up the aristocrats! Liberty will triumph “It’ll be O.K., it’ll be O.K., it’ll be O.K," And we will no longer have nobles or priests "It’ll be O.K., it’ll be O.K., it’ll be O.K,"" Equality will reign throughout the land And the Austrian slave will follow it. "It’ll be O.K., it’ll be O.K., it’ll be O.K," And their hellish clique will be sent to the devil. The Marseillaise:  The Marseillaise Arise you children of our motherland, Oh now is here our glorious day ! Over us the bloodstained banner Of tyranny holds sway ! Of tyranny holds sway ! Oh, do you hear there in our fields The roar of those fierce fighting men ? Who came right here into our midst To slaughter sons, wives and kin. To arms, oh citizens ! Form up in serried ranks ! March on, march on ! And drench our fields With their tainted blood ! Supreme devotion to our Motherland, Guides and sustains avenging hands. Liberty, oh dearest Liberty, Come fight with your shielding bands, Come fight with your shielding bands ! Beneath our banner come, oh Victory, Run at your soul-stirring cry. Oh come, come see your foes now die, Witness your pride and our glory. To arms, etc.. Into the fight we too shall enter, When our fathers are dead and gone, We shall find their bones laid down to rest, With the fame of their glories won, With the fame of their glories won ! Oh, to survive them care we not, Glad are we to share their grave, Great honor is to be our lot To follow or to avenge our brave. To arms, etc..    The Reign of Terror, 1793-4:  The Reign of Terror, 1793-4 Committee of Public Safety, March 1793-July 1794 Maximilien Robespierre (1758-94) Threats to Revolutionary France Invasion: Massed levy Civil War: Vendée Rebellion Terror and the Republic of Virtue Approx. 40,000 guillotined De-christianization New calendar Metric system Executions during the Reign of Terror, %:  Executions during the Reign of Terror, % Classes in France (86, 8, 4, 1.5, 0.5%) Executions (28, 31, 25, 8, 7%) J.-L. David, Death of Marat:  J.-L. David, Death of Marat The Propaganda War:  The Propaganda War Empire and Restoration: Outline:  Empire and Restoration: Outline Directory, 1795-9 Consulate, 1799-1804 Empire, 1804-14 The 100 Days, 1815 Bourbon Restoration, 1815-30 Congress of Vienna Napoleon by A.-J. Gros, Chateau de Versailles Napoleon Bonaparte to 1799:  Napoleon Bonaparte to 1799 Career to 1799 Born, Corsica, 1769 École Militaire, 1779 Battle of Toulon, 1793 Army of Italy, 1796 Defeat of Austria (Treaty of Campo Formio, 1797) Egyptian Expedition, 1798 J.-L. David, Bonaparte Leaping the St. Bernard French Expansion, 1791-9:  French Expansion, 1791-9 The Rosetta Stone:  The Rosetta Stone ©The British Museum Bonaparte’s Military Exploits:  Bonaparte’s Military Exploits Military Career to 1815 18th Brumaire (9 Nov. 1799) overthrows Directory Battle of Austerlitz, 1805 Battle of Jena, 1806 Russian Campaign, 1812 Battle of Leipzig, 1813 Abdication, April 1814 100 Days, March-June 1815 Waterloo, June 1815 J.-A.-D. Ingres, Napoleon on his Imperial Throne, 1806 David’s Consecration of the Emperor Napoleon (1804):  David’s Consecration of the Emperor Napoleon (1804) Bonaparte and French Society:  Bonaparte and French Society Radical or Reactionary? State Secondary Schools, 1802 Restoration of titles, 1804 Legion of Honor, 1804 Napoleonic Code, 1804 Pierre-Paul Prud’hon, The Empress Josephine (1805) Congress of Vienna:  Congress of Vienna Postwar Settlement Restoration of France ‘Spheres of influence’ not ‘balance of power’ Pragmatic acceptance of some change ‘Metternich system’ of absolutism Sir Thomas Lawrence, Robert Stewart, 2nd Marquess of Londonderry (Lord Castlereagh), 1809-1810 Europe after the Congress of Vienna, 1815:  Europe after the Congress of Vienna, 1815 The Industrial Revolution: The ‘Putting-out’ System:  The Industrial Revolution: The ‘Putting-out’ System Who wants to be a Cotton Millionaire?:  Who wants to be a Cotton Millionaire? The Industrial Revolution: New Technology, I:  The Industrial Revolution: New Technology, I Steam Engines Thomas Newcomen (1712) James Watt (1781) Example of a Cornish Beam Engine Watt steam engine, 1781 Surviving Newcomen engine The Industrial Revolution: New Technology, II:  The Industrial Revolution: New Technology, II Cotton Industry: John Kay, Flying Shuttle, 1722 James Hargreaves, spinning jenny, 1764 Richard Arkwright, water frame, 1769 Arkwright water frame, 1785 Reproduction of 1770 spinning jenny The Industrial Revolution: The Factory System:  The Industrial Revolution: The Factory System The Factory System A spinning mill Employment of new technology Centralization of production Factory discipline Separation of work and home The Industrial Revolution: Factory Employment:  The Industrial Revolution: Factory Employment Employment at Quarry Bank Mill, 1844-50 (%) From Mary Rose, The Gregs of Quarry Bank Mill (1986) Two Early Factories:  Two Early Factories Lumbhole Mill, ca. 1825 Dane Mill, converted from water to steam power, ca. 1780s The Industrial Revolution: New Technology, III :  The Industrial Revolution: New Technology, III The Railroad Backward linkages: Employment Iron and coal production Engineering Forward linkages: Travel and transport  Prices Markets and distribution Stephenson’s Rocket, 1829 Industrialization in Europe, c. 1850:  Industrialization in Europe, c. 1850 Urbanization, 1800-1870:  Urbanization, 1800-1870 Critics of Capitalism:  Critics of Capitalism Utopian Socialism Robert Owen (1771-1858) New Lanark, 1799-1824 New Harmony, 1824-8 Grand National Consolidated Trades Union, 1832-4 Critics of Capitalism:  Critics of Capitalism Utopian Socialists, cont. Charles Fourier (1772-1837) Phalanstery or phalanx Claude Saint-Simon (1760-1825) Charles Fourier Marx and Engels:  Marx and Engels The Communist Manifesto, 1848 Materialist dialectic Bourgeoisie and proletariat Theory of class struggle Karl Marx (1818-1883)

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