lecture 8 predation

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Information about lecture 8 predation
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Published on January 1, 2008

Author: GenX

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Slide1:  Predation – one species feeds on another  enhances fitness of predator but reduces fitness of prey (+/– interaction) Slide2:  Types of predators Carnivores – kill the prey during attack Herbivores – remove parts of many prey, rarely lethal. Parasites – consume parts of one or few prey, rarely lethal. Parasitoids – kill one prey during prolonged attack. Slide3:  Diet breadth consumes only one prey type consumes many prey types broad diet narrow diet specialist generalist Slide4:  Why are ecological interactions important? Interactions can affect distribution and abundance. Interactions can influence evolution. Slide5:  How has predation influenced evolution? Adaptations to avoid being eaten: spines (cactii, porcupines) hard shells (clams, turtles) toxins (milkweeds, some newts) bad taste (monarch butterflies) camouflage aposematic colors mimicry Slide6:  Camouflage – blending in Slide7:  Aposematic colors – warning Slide8:  Is he crazy??? Slide9:  Mimicry – look like something that is dangerous or tastes bad Slide10:  Mimicry – look like something that is dangerous or tastes bad Mullerian mimicry – convergence of several unpalatable species Slide11:  Mimicry – look like something that is dangerous or tastes bad Batesian mimicry – palatable species mimics an unpalatable species model mimic model mimics Slide12:  Why are ecological interactions important? Interactions can affect distribution and abundance. Interactions can influence evolution. Slide13:  Predator-prey population dynamics are connected Predators kill prey  affects prey death rate dNprey/dt = rNprey change in prey population per capita rate of growth without predation deaths due to predation – pNpreyNpredator Slide14:  Predator-prey population dynamics are connected Predators kill prey  affects prey death rate dNprey/dt = rNprey – pNpredatorNprey predation rate prey population size depends on number of predators with few predators, prey population grows with many predators, prey population shrinks Slide15:  Predator-prey population dynamics are connected Predators eat prey  affects predator birth rate dNpredator/dt = cpNpreyNpredator – dNpredator births due to predation change in predator population death rate Slide16:  Predator-prey population dynamics are connected Predators eat prey  affects predator birth rate dNpredator/dt = cpNpreyNpredator – dNpredator predation rate conversion rate of prey to baby predators predator population size depends on number of prey with many prey, predator population grows with few prey, predator population shrinks Slide17:  Predator-prey population dynamics are connected Predators kill and eat prey dNpredator/dt = cpNpreyNpredator – dNpredator with few predators, prey population grows with many prey, predator population grows with many predators, prey population shrinks with few prey, predator population shrinks  affects prey death rate  affects predator birth rate dNprey/dt = rNprey – pNpredatorNprey N time Slide18:  Lotka-Volterra models describe predator and prey population cycling. Real world predator and prey populations can cycle in size. Slide19:  Why are ecological interactions important? Interactions can affect distribution and abundance. Interactions can influence evolution. Slide20:  Keystone species affect community structure Predators can allow coexistence of competing prey competitors Barnacles Mussels Balanus Mytilus (Paine 1966) Slide21:  Keystone species affect community structure Predators can allow coexistence of competing prey Starfish competitors predator Pisaster Barnacles Mussels Balanus Mytilus (Paine 1966) Slide22:  Barnacles Mussels Balanus Mytilus How can we test the effect of a predator on community structure? Starfish Pisaster Slide23:  Removal experiment time starfish removed % of inter- tidal zone mussels - mussels are the dominant competitor - competitive exclusion of barnacles barnacles Slide24:  time starfish removed % of inter- tidal zone mussels barnacles What is the effect of the predator on the structure of this community? - starfish allow coexistence of competitors Slide25:  Barnacles Mussels Starfish Pisaster Starfish are picky – they prefer mussels (dominant competitor), which allows barnacles (weaker competitor) to coexist. How do starfish promote coexistence? Balanus Mytilus Slide26:  Keystone species affect community structure disproportionately to their abundance. Picky predators can promote coexistence among competing prey species. Competitive exclusion is prevented when the dominant competitor is the preferred prey.

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