Lecture #25 - Unit 7b - Classical Conditioning ii

50 %
50 %
Information about Lecture #25 - Unit 7b - Classical Conditioning ii
Education

Published on March 20, 2014

Author: FraserNelson

Source: slideshare.net

PSYC 1110 INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY LECTURE # 26 | SESSION 7B | MARCH 19, 2014 INSTRUCTOR: FRASER NELSON

CHAPTER 7: LEARNING OBJECTIVES CLASSICAL CONDITIONING 1. BE ABLE TO EXPLAIN THE PROCESS OF CLASSICAL CONDITIONING USING THE ABBREVIATIONS US, UR, NS, CS, AND CR. 2. AT WHICH POINT DOES THE NEUTRAL STIMULUS BECOME THE CONDITIONED STIMULUS? 3. WHAT IS THE ROLE OF CONTIGUITY AND CONTINGENCY IN ESTABLISHING THE CHAIN OF CAUSATION? 4. HOW DOES THE PROCESS OF EXTINCTION WORK IN CLASSICAL CONDITIONING? 5. WHAT DO STIMULUS GENERALIZATION AND STIMULUS DISCRIMINATION REFER TO IN CLASSICAL CONDITIONING? 6. HOW CAN ‘FEAR’ BE CONDITIONED AND UNCONDITIONED USING CONCEPTS FROM CLASSICAL CONDITIONING? OPERANT CONDITIONING 1. EXPLAIN THE THREE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN OPERANT AND CLASSICAL CONDITIONING 2. EXPLAIN THE IMPORTANCE OF THE LAW OF EFFECT (THORNDIKE) TO OPERANT CONDITIONING 3. WHAT ARE THE TWO TYPES OF BEHAVIOURAL CONSEQUENCES? 4. WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A PRIMARY REINFORCEMENT AND A SECONDARY REINFORCEMENT? 5. WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT AND POSITIVE PUNISHMENT IN OPERANT CONDITIONING? 6. HOW DO EXTINCTION, GENERALIZATION, AND DISCRIMINATION TAKE PLACE IN OPERANT CONDITIONING? 7. WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A CONTINUOUS SCHEDULE OF REINFORCEMENT AND AN INTERMITTENT SCHEDULE OF REINFORCEMENT? 8. WHICH SCHEDULE OF REINFORCEMENT PRODUCES RESPONSES THAT ARE MOST RESILIENT TO EXTINCTION AND WHY? 9. HOW COULD YOU USE SHAPING OF SUCCESSIVE APPROXIMATIONS TO TRAIN A CHICKEN TO PLAY TIC-TAC-TOE? 10.WHAT ARE SIX REASONS WHY PUNISHMENT USUALLY FAILS TO CHANGE BEHAVIOUR? 11.WHAT ARE SOME CIRCUMSTANCES UNDER WHICH REWARD MIGHT BACKFIRE? 12.USING THE CONCEPTS OF OPERANT CONDITIONING, EXPLAIN HOW BEST TO DISCIPLINE A CHILD BEYOND OPERANT CONDITIONING 1. WHAT IS LATENT LEARNING? 2. WHAT IS OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING? 3. OUTLINE THE ARGUMENTS FOR/AGAINST THE IDEA THAT CHILDREN CAN BECOME MORE AGGRESSIVE FROM PLAYING VIDEOGAMES/ WATCHING VIOLENT MEDIA.

Copyright © 2013 Pearson LEARNING TO FEAR – BEHAVIOURISTS SUGGEST THAT WE MAY LEARN TO FEAR ANY STIMULUS THAT IS PAIRED WITH SOMETHING THAT ELICITS PAIN, SURPRISE, OR EMBARRASSMENT – PHOBIAS: AN EXAGGERATED UNREALISTIC FEAR OF A SPECIFIC SITUATION, ACTIVITY, OR OBJECT 7-3

Copyright © 2013 Pearson LEARNING TO FEAR – HUMANS COME BIOLOGICALLY “PREPARED” TO LEARN CERTAIN FEARS FASTER THAN OTHERS (EVOLUTIONARY BASIS) • E.G., SNAKES, SPIDERS, HEIGHTS – PHOBIAS: AN EXAGGERATED UNREALISTIC FEAR OF A SPECIFIC SITUATION, ACTIVITY, OR OBJECT 7-4

Copyright © 2013 Pearson THE CASE OF LITTLE ALBERT (WATSON & RAYNOR, 1920 • CLASSIC WATSON & RAYNOR (1920) EXPERIMENT 7-5

Copyright © 2013 Pearson THE CASE OF PETER • JONES (1924) AND WATSON DEMONSTRATED THAT FEARS CAN ALSO BE UNLEARNED (E.G., PETER’S FEAR OF RABBITS) • COUNTERCONDITIONING: PROCESS OF PAIRING A CONDITIONED STIMULUS WITH A STIMULUS THAT ELICITS A RESPONSE THAT IS INCOMPATIBLE WITH AN UNWANTED CONDITIONED RESPONSE 7-6

CLASSICAL CONDITIONING AND EMOTIONAL RESPONSE • DIFFERENT STIMULI CAN EVOKE EMOTIONAL REACTIONS SUCH AS FEELINGS OF FEAR, DISGUST, CONTEMPT, ANGER, SADNESS, SEXUAL DESIRE, ETC. • THESE STIMULI COULD INCLUDE: SONGS, PICTURES, SMELLS • E.G. SMELLING THE PERFUME OF AN EX- LOVER ON A PASSERBY • THE EMOTIONAL FEELING IS THE CONDITIONED RESPONSE • THE PERFUME IS THE CONDITIONED STIMULUS • REPRESENTS HOW PAST LEARNED RESPONSES EVOKE OUR EMOTIONS 7-7

CLASSICAL CONDITIONING AND EMOTIONAL RESPONSE • EXPERIMENT (TODRANK, BYRNES, WRZESNIEWSKI, AND ROZIN, 1995) • TASKS • RATE LIKEABILITY OF A PERSON FROM A PHOTOGRAPH • CONDITIONS • RE-RATE FOLLOWING CONTACT WITH VARIOUS STIMULI • PLEASURABLE ODOUR, OFFENSIVE ODOUR, NEUTRAL ODOUR • RESULTS • PICTURES ASSOCIATED WITH A DISLIKED ODOUR WERE RATED AS LESS ATTRACTIVE • THUS, CC PLAYS A ROLE IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF SOME PERSONAL LIKES/DISLIKES 7-8 LIKE= Image credit: http://www.therealbest.com/img/items/big/469/George-Clooney_Attractive-person_371.jpg Image credit: http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3638/3323534098_94c69e3dc3.jpg

LIMITATIONS OF CLASSICAL CONDITIONING • CLASSICAL CONDITIONING PROVIDES ADEQUATE EXPLANATION FOR HOW: – WE COME TO HAVE CERTAIN EMOTIONAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES TO STIMULI – WE CAN PAIR AUTOMATIC STIMULI WITH SEEMINGLY UNRELATED STIMULI – THESE RESPONSES ARE LEARNED, REFINED, AND EXTINGUISHED • BUT, IT DOESN’T EXPLAIN – HOW WE LEARN COMPLEX BEHAVIOUR (TO RIDE A BIKE, ETC.) – HOW WE CAN TRAIN OUR DOG TO FETCH – HOW TO ENSURE THAT A CHILD CLEANS THEIR ROOM • FOR THAT, WE NEED, OPERANT CONDITIONING

OPERANT CONDITIONING LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1.EXPLAIN THE THREE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN OPERANT AND CLASSICAL CONDITIONING 2.EXPLAIN THE IMPORTANCE OF THE LAW OF EFFECT (THORNDIKE) TO OPERANT CONDITIONING 3.WHAT ARE THE TWO TYPES OF BEHAVIOURAL CONSEQUENCES? 4.WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A PRIMARY REINFORCEMENT AND A SECONDARY REINFORCEMENT? 5.WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT AND POSITIVE PUNISHMENT IN OPERANT CONDITIONING? 6.HOW DO EXTINCTION, GENERALIZATION, AND DISCRIMINATION TAKE PLACE IN OPERANT CONDITIONING? 7.WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A CONTINUOUS SCHEDULE OF REINFORCEMENT AND AN INTERMITTENT SCHEDULE OF REINFORCEMENT? 8.WHICH SCHEDULE OF REINFORCEMENT PRODUCES RESPONSES THAT ARE MOST RESILIENT TO EXTINCTION AND WHY? 9.HOW COULD YOU USE SHAPING OF SUCCESSIVE APPROXIMATIONS TO TRAIN A CHICKEN TO PLAY TIC-TAC- TOE? 10.WHAT ARE SIX REASONS WHY PUNISHMENT USUALLY FAILS TO CHANGE BEHAVIOUR? 11.WHAT ARE SOME CIRCUMSTANCES UNDER WHICH REWARD MIGHT BACKFIRE? 12.USING THE CONCEPTS OF OPERANT CONDITIONING, EXPLAIN HOW BEST TO DISCIPLINE A CHILD

CLASSICAL CONDITIONING 1. US  UR (INITIAL STATE) 2. US + NS  UR (CONDITIONING) 3. CS  CR (FINAL STATE) US = UNCONDITIONED STIMULUS UR = UNCONDITIONED RESPONSE NS = NEUTRAL STIMULUS CS = CONDITIONED STIMULUS CR = CONDITIONED RESPONSE

OPERANT CONDITIONING • A BEHAVIOUR BECOMES MORE OF LESS LIKELY DEPENDING ON ITS CONSEQUENCES IGNORED BY CLASSICAL CONDITIONING Image credit: http://images.fxcuisine.com/blogimages/french-cuisine/galettes-sarrasin/buckwheat-pancakes-10-1000.jpg

CONSEQUENCES? • OPERANT CONDITIONING - REFERS TO HOW THE RESPONSE OPERATES ON THE ENVIRONMENT – DID THE BEHAVIOUR ELICIT A POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE CONSEQUENCE? • THE CONSEQUENCE OF THE RESPONSE DETERMINES THE LIKELIHOOD OF RE- OCURRENCE NEGATIVE CONSEQUENCE POSITIVE CONSEQUENCE

RADICAL BEHAVIOURISM • BEHAVIOURISM (WATSON)  RADICAL BEHAVIOURISM (THORNDIKE AND BF SKINNER) • MODUS OPERANDI: UNDERSTAND BEHAVIOUR BY FOCUSING ON ITS EXTERNAL CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES • 2 MAJOR CONSEQUENCES OF A BEHAVIOUR – REINFORCEMENT – PUNISHMENT E.L. THORNDIKE B.F. SKINNER Image credit: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/6/67/Edward_Thorndike.jpg/220px- Edward_Thorndike.jpg Image credit: http://www.nndb.com/people/297/000022231/bf-skinner-sm.jpg

OPERANT CONDITIONING Reinforcement Re-occurrence / Strength of behaviour Punishment Behaviour

CONSEQUENCES OF A BEHAVIOUR • REINFORCEMENT – INCREASES THE LIKELIHOOD THAT A BEHAVIOUR WILL OCCUR AND/OR STRENGTHENS ITS RESPONSE • PUNISHMENT – DECREASES THE LIKELIHOOD A BEHAVIOUR WILL OCCUR AND/OR WEAKENS ITS RESPONSE

THORNDIKE AND THE LAW OF EFFECT • THORNDIKE (1874-1949) – AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST AT COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY – SPECIALIZED IN ‘PUZZLE BOXES’ • PUZZLE BOX (THORNDIKE BOX) – A BOX WITH A LID OR DOOR THAT LOCKS INTO PLACE SO THAT AN ANIMAL CAN BE LOCKED INSIDE. ONCE INSIDE, THE ANIMAL MUST FIGURE OUT THE ‘TRICK’ TO OPENING THE DOOR - WHICH COULD BE A ROPE PULL, A PEDAL PRESS, OR A SWITCH-FLIP • LAW OF EFFECT – IN A GIVEN SITUATION, BEHAVIOURS THAT LEAD TO A POSITIVE CONSEQUENCE ARE STRENGTHENED SUCH THAT THE NEXT TIME THE SITUATION OCCURS, THE BEHAVIOUR IS MORE LIKELY TO BE REPEATED…(1905) AND VICE-VERSA Image credit: http://www.madsci.org/posts/archives/dec2000/976764944.Ns.1.jpg

THORNDIKE’S BOX • PROBLEM STATE (INITIAL) – MANY ATTEMPTS : MOST TIME • PROBLEM STATE (LEARNING) • PROBLEM STATE (FINAL) – ONLY SUCCESSFUL STRATEGY IS RETAINED • HENCE, THE LAW OF EFFECT • UNDERLYING MECHANISM – REINFORCEMENT Youtube video  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BDujDOLre-8 Image credit: http://www.madsci.org/posts/archives/dec2000/976764944.Ns.1.jpg

REINFORCEMENT Positive (+) Reinforcement ↑Re-occurrence / Strength of behaviour Negative (-) Reinforcement Behaviour

REINFORCEMENT Applauding their effort (gold star) ↑Re-occurrence / Strength of behaviour Stop finger- wagging Sneezing into your elbow

PUNISHMENT Positive Punishment ↓Re-occurrence / Strength of behaviour Negative Punishment Behaviour

PUNISHMENT: EXAMPLE Scolding them ↓Re-occurrence / Strength of behaviour Silent treatment Partner burps loudly

END OF LECTURE

Add a comment

Related presentations

Related pages

6 :: LEARNING 6.1 of Salivation p. 196 - Higher Education ...

... Classical Conditioning of Salivation p. 196 ... Classical Conditioning: ... lecture outlines that fi t the lecture perfectly, ...
Read more

PSYC*2330, Course Outline: Fall 2015 - University of Guelph

Issues and applications of Classical Conditioning . 4 : ... Quiz II Lecture Units 5 to 7 ... for 7 days following the conclusion of selected Lecture Unit.
Read more

AP PSYCHOLOGY UNIT 7 A 7B PRETEST - West Shore Junior ...

AP PSYCHOLOGY UNIT 7 A 7B PRETEST Name: ... acquired through classical conditioning 5. ... 25. Repealing someone's ...
Read more

Resource Index | Probabilistic Systems Analysis and ...

This resource index gives users access to most of the course resources in a single location. ... Unit II: General Random ... Lecture 25: Classical ...
Read more

Ap Psychology Unit 6 vocabulary flashcards | Quizlet

Ap Psychology Unit 6 vocabulary 45 terms by 13krehk. Study Study ... in classical conditioning, the initial stage, ...
Read more

10.Classical conditioning was originally proposed by whom ...

10.Classical conditioning was originally ... key terms quiz unit ii ... key terms quiz unit ii 25/25 classical conditioning based upon the ...
Read more

STUDYBLUE | Find and share online flashcards and notes ...

What is StudyBlue? StudyBlue, the leading crowdsourced learning platform, provides intelligent learning tools including flashcards, notes, study guides and ...
Read more

COURSE CONTENTS (Effective from the Academic Year 2011 ...

COURSE CONTENTS (Effective from the Academic ... Main Papers 100 75 25 5 Lectures 1 ... Statistical Methods for Psychological Research-II UNIT 1
Read more

Classical Mechanics - University of California, Riverside

Classical Mechanics John Baez Here are some course notes and homework problems for a mathematics graduate course on classical mechanics. There are two ...
Read more

Author : joseph m. powers

Author : joseph m. powers
Read more