Lecture #23 - Unit 6c - Visual perception and audition

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Information about Lecture #23 - Unit 6c - Visual perception and audition
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Published on March 11, 2014

Author: FraserNelson

Source: slideshare.net

PSYC 1110 INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY LECTURE #23 | UNIT 6C | MARCH 10, 2014 INSTRUCTOR: FRASER NELSON

CHAPTER 6: SENSATION AND PERCEPTION

CHAPTER 6: LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1. WHAT ARE THE SEPARATE SENSE RECEPTORS, AND WHAT KINDS OF STIMULATION DO THEY RESPOND TO? 2. WHAT ARE ABSOLUTE THRESHOLDS AND DIFFERENCE THRESHOLDS, AND HOW DOES SIGNAL DETECTION THEORY HELP US UNDERSTAND THEM? 3. WHAT ARE THE PRIMARY DISTINCTIONS AMONG SENSORY ADAPTATION, SENSORY DEPRIVATION, AND SELECTIVE ATTENTION? 4. WHAT ARE THE THREE PSYCHOLOGICAL DIMENSIONS OF VISION? 5. HOW DO RODS AND CONES DIFFER IN THEIR STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS? 6. HOW DO THE TRICHROMATIC THEORY AND OPPONENT-PROCESS THEORY EXPLAIN COLOUR VISION? 7. WHAT ARE FOUR MAIN GESTALT PRINCIPLES OF PERCEPTION? 8. WHAT ARE FIVE VISUAL CONSTANCIES THAT CONTRIBUTE TO VISUAL PERCEPTION? 9. WHAT ARE THE THREE PSYCHOLOGICAL DIMENSIONS OF HEARING? 10. WHAT ARE THE MAJOR STRUCTURES OF THE INNER EAR THAT CONTRIBUTE TO THE SENSE OF HEARING? 11. WHY ARE TASTE AND SMELL CALLED “CHEMICAL SENSES”? 12. HOW DOES GATE-CONTROL THEORY ACCOUNT FOR OUR PERCEPTION OF PAIN?

CONTROLLING YOUR PERCEPTION • CAN YOU MAKE THE BALLS (IN YOUR MIND) – ROTATE CLOCKWISE – ROTATE COUNTER-CLOCKWISE – MOVE HORIZONTALLY – MOVE UP AND DOWN • SUGGESTS VOLUNTARY CONTROL OF OUR PERCEPTION

VOLUNTARY CONTROL OF PERCEPTION? • SPINNING HEAD ILLUSION – HTTP://WWW.MICHAELBACH.DE/OT/FCS_HOLLOW-FACE/CHAPLIN.MP4 • EXPLANATIONS – SALIENCE OF FACES • FUSIFORM GYRUS • PROSPOPAGNOSIA – 3-D WORLD, 2-D RETINA • GESTALT PRINCIPLES

GESTALT PRINCIPLES • THE MIND APPEARS TO GLUE TOGETHER FEATURES OF OBJECTS INTO COHESIVE WHOLES AND DOES SO ACCORDING TO A SET OF RULES 1. FIGURE / GROUND 2. PROXIMINTY 3. CLOSURE 4. SIMILIARITY 5. CONTINUITY Image credit: http://www.atpm.com/9.10/images/design-gestalt.gif

FIGURE/GROUND • WE TEND TO PARSE OUR VISUAL FIELD INTO (BACK)GROUND AND FIGURE (SALIENT OBJECT) • DO YOU SEE THE FACES OR THE CHALICE AS THE MOST SALIENT OBJECT? Image credit: http://images.lingvistika.org/w/images/4/43/FigureGroundPerceptionFigure6AdaptedRubinVaseFace.jpg

PROXIMITY Image credit: http://www.sapdesignguild.org/goodies/optical_illusions/images/proximity.gif

CLOSURE Image credit: http://graphicdesign.spokanefalls.edu/tutorials/process/gestaltprinciples/gestaltprinc.htm THE TENDENCY OF THE BRAIN TO FILL-IN-THE- GAPS TO BE ABLE TO PERCEIVE A WHOLE OBJECT

SIMILARITY Image credit: http://jeffbrew.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/gestalt-principles-similarity-i5.jpg

CONTINUITY Image credit: http://shazimalik.files.wordpress.com/2012/05/law-of-closure.jpg THE BRAIN TENDS TO INTERPRET LINES/PATTERNS AS CONTINUING IN SPACE, EVEN IF THE LINES ARE SIMPLY INFERRED AS IS THE CASE IN THIS DIAGRAM

NAVIGATING IN OUR 3-D WORLD Image credit: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6b/Rotating_globe.gif Image credit: http://www.epa.gov/oppt/itc/pubs/tscacbitesting/images/navigation.jpg

SHORT DISTANCE - BINOCULAR CUES • CONVERGENCE – INCREASE ANGLE OF CONVERGENCE = CLOSER THE OBJECT IS TO US • TEST – BRING YOUR POINTER FINGER SLOWLY TOWARDS YOUR NOSE - AS THE FINGER DRAWS NEARER, YOUR EYES ROTATE FURTHER INWARDS AND THE ANGLE OF CONVERGENCE INCREASES Image credit: http://www.sapdesignguild.org/editions/edition9/images/convergence.png

SHORT DISTANCE - BINOCULAR CUES • RETINAL DISPARITY – FOR JUDGING LATERAL DISTANCE BETWEEN OBJECTS • TEST – POINT AT AN OBJECT TO DETERMINE YOUR DOMINANT EYE Image credit: http://eweb.furman.edu/~einstein/general/sandpdemo/98.jpg

MONOCULAR CUES • DISTANCE OVER 15 M • CUES INCLUDE – INTERPOSITION – LINEAR PERSPECTIVE – LIGHT AND SHADOW

MONOCULAR CUES • DISTANCE OVER 15 M • CUES INCLUDE – INTERPOSITION – LINEAR PERSPECTIVE – LIGHT AND SHADOW Image credit: http://stevewebel.com/photographer/wp-content/uploads/2008/04/vanishing-point.jpg

MONOCULAR CUES • DISTANCE OVER 15 M • CUES INCLUDE – INTERPOSITION – LINEAR PERSPECTIVE – LIGHT AND SHADOW Image credit: http://designyoutrust.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/i1b30.jpg Image credit: http://www.tayloralpine.com/storage/P1050840.jpg?__SQUARESPACE_CACHEVERSION=1301826571546

5 VISUAL CONSTANCIES 1. SHAPE CONSTANCY Image credit: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/24/Shape_constancy.gif

5 VISUAL CONSTANCIES 1. LOCATION CONSTANCY

5 VISUAL CONSTANCIES 1. SIZE CONSTANCY Image credit: http://www.cns.nyu.edu/~david/courses/perception/lecturenotes/depth/depth-slides/Slide33.jpg

5 VISUAL CONSTANCIES 1. BRIGHTNESS CONSTANCY Image credit: http://web.mit.edu/persci/people/adelson/checkershadow_illusion.html

5 VISUAL CONSTANCIES 1. COLOUR CONSTANCY Image credit: http://www.psypress.co.uk/mather/resources/jpg/Image12_1.jpg

SENSATION VS. PERCEPTION SENSATION PERCEPTION

SENSES 1. VISION 2. AUDITION 3. GUSTATION 4. OLFACTION

AUDITION • SOUND IS COMPOSED OF PRESSURE WAVES THAT OUR EARS ARE ATTUNED TO DETECTING • THREE PROPERTIES OF INTEREST 1. LOUDNESS 2. PITCH 3. TIMBRE Image credit: http://m.eet.com/media/1161222/hearing_difficulties.jpg

THREE PSYCHOLOGICAL DIMENSIONS OF HEARING 1. LOUDNESS 1. AMPLITUDE OF SOUND WAVE 2. IMPLIES ‘INTENSITY’ 2. PITCH 1. FREQUENCY OF WAVE 3. TIMBRE 1. IMPLIES ‘TONE’ 2. REFERS TO ‘COMBINATION OF FREQUENCIES PRESENT IN THE WAVE Image credit: http://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/var/sciencelearn/storage/images/contexts/the-noisy-reef/sci-media/images/graphs-of-sound-waves/411506-1-eng-NZ/Graphs-of- sound-waves.jpg

THREE PSYCHOLOGICAL DIMENSIONS OF HEARING Sound Wave Property Vision Pitch Frequency (Hz) - Loudness Amplitude Brightness Timbre Complexity (combination with other waveforms) Saturation - Wavelength (nm) Hue

MAJOR STRUCTURES OF THE INNER EAR THREE SECTIONS OF THE EAR • OUTER • MIDDLE • INNER • OUTER • CAPTURING THE SOUND WAVE AND DIRECTING IT TO THE MIDDLE EAR • KEY STRUCTURES • PINNAE • AUDITORY CANAL • EARDRUM = TYMPANIC MEMBRANE • MIDDLE • MAINTAINING GOOD VIBRATIONS • KEY STRUCTURES • TYMPANIC MEMBRANE • 3 LITTLE BONES (M,I,S) • OVAL WINDOW • INNER • ENCLOSED IN THE COCHLEA • SITE OF TRANSDUCTION FROM SOUND WAVE TO NEURAL IMPULSE • KEY STRUCTURES • OVAL WINDOW • 3 FLUID FILLED CANALS • BASILAR MEMBRANE • HAIR CELLS • VIDEO  HTTPS://WWW.YOUTUBE.COM/WATCH?V=QGDQP-OPB1Q Image credit: http://sciences.iran.sc/

END OF LECTURE

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