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Lecture #22 - Unit 6b - Visual Sensation and Perception

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Information about Lecture #22 - Unit 6b - Visual Sensation and Perception
Education

Published on March 10, 2014

Author: FraserNelson

Source: slideshare.net

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PSYC 1110 INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY LECTURE #22 | UNIT 6B | MARCH 7, 2014 INSTRUCTOR: FRASER NELSON

CHAPTER 6: SENSATION AND PERCEPTION

CHAPTER 6: LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1. WHAT ARE THE SEPARATE SENSE RECEPTORS, AND WHAT KINDS OF STIMULATION DO THEY RESPOND TO? 2. WHAT ARE ABSOLUTE THRESHOLDS AND DIFFERENCE THRESHOLDS, AND HOW DOES SIGNAL DETECTION THEORY HELP US UNDERSTAND THEM? 3. WHAT ARE THE PRIMARY DISTINCTIONS AMONG SENSORY ADAPTATION, SENSORY DEPRIVATION, AND SELECTIVE ATTENTION? 4. WHAT ARE THE THREE PSYCHOLOGICAL DIMENSIONS OF VISION? 5. HOW DO RODS AND CONES DIFFER IN THEIR STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS? 6. HOW DO THE TRICHROMATIC THEORY AND OPPONENT-PROCESS THEORY EXPLAIN COLOUR VISION? 7. WHAT ARE FOUR MAIN GESTALT PRINCIPLES OF PERCEPTION? 8. WHAT ARE FIVE VISUAL CONSTANCIES THAT CONTRIBUTE TO VISUAL PERCEPTION? 9. WHAT ARE THE THREE PSYCHOLOGICAL DIMENSIONS OF HEARING? 10. WHAT ARE THE MAJOR STRUCTURES OF THE INNER EAR THAT CONTRIBUTE TO THE SENSE OF HEARING? 11. WHY ARE TASTE AND SMELL CALLED “CHEMICAL SENSES”? 12. HOW DOES GATE-CONTROL THEORY ACCOUNT FOR OUR PERCEPTION OF PAIN?

SENSING WITHOUT PERCEIVING • DIFFERENT LEVELS, DIFFERENT FILTERING MECHANISMS – SENSORY ADAPTATION - AT THE LEVEL OF THE SENSORY RECEPTORS – SELECTIVE ATTENTION - AT THE LEVEL OF COGNITION (BRAIN) • ATTENTION AS A FIXED RESOURCE – INATTENTION BLINDNESS – COCKTAIL PARTY EFFECT

COCKTAIL PARTY EFFECT Image credit: http://media.npr.org/assets/img/2013/03/06/cocktail-party_wide-1fcde06aa21346d458ac240fcbdfe5039e514829-s6-c30.jpg

SENSATION • FROM SENSATION  SENSES – – – – – VISION AUDITION OLFACTION TASTE TOUCH

VISION • SENSATION – PROPERTIES – THEORIES OF COLOUR VISION • PERCEPTION – GESTALT LOGIC – BINOCULAR VS. MONOCULAR VISION

VISION: PROPERTIES OF A STIMULUS • ANY VISUAL STIMULUS CAN BE PARSED INTO DIFFERENT LEVELS OF ITS PROPERTIES • 1ST LEVEL (PHYSICAL) – WAVELENGTH, FREQUENCY, COMPLEXITY • 2ND LEVEL (PSYCHOLOGICAL - FEATURES) – HUE, BRIGHTNESS, SATURATION • 3RD LEVEL (FEATURE PROCESSING) – SIMPLE PATTERNS, COMPLEX PATTERNS, FACES

VISION: PROPERTIES OF A STIMULUS • WHAT WE SEE – LIGHT = VISUAL PROPERTIES • HUE, BRIGHTNESS, AND SATURATION Image credit: http://www.color-wheel-artist.com/images/color-wheel-hue.jpg Image credit: http://www.borisfx.com/images/bcc3/brightness_contrast.jpg Image credit: http://users.design.ucla.edu/~cariesta/MayaCourseNotes/assets/images/saturation_target.jpg

VISUAL PROPERTIES TO NEURAL IMPULSES Visual property Wave property Example Hue Wavelength Blue (475 nm) Green (510 nm) Red (650 nm) Brightness Amplitude High Amp: Bright Low amp: dim Saturation Complexity Combination with other wavelengths = low sat Pure wavelength = high sat Image credit: http://www.tomjewett.com/colors/hsb.jpg

UNDERSTANDING OUR CAMERA HUMAN EYE • KEY COMPONENTS – CORNEA, IRIS, PUPIL, LENS, • APERATURE/FOCUS – RETINA AND THE VISUAL RECEPTORS (RODS, CONES) • ISO (SENSITIVITY TO LIGHT) • PATHWAY – LIGHT  CORNEA  PUPIL  LENS + IRIS  RETINA  RODS + CONES  OPTIC NERVE Image credit: http://fractalontology.files.wordpress.com/2009/11/c omplex_eye_500.jpg

PHOTORECEPTORS • RODS – FOR LOW LIGHT VISION – BLACK AND WHITE • CONES – ACCOUNTS FOR OUR VISUAL ACUITY – COLOUR VISION – BUT, REQUIRES WELL LIT ENVIRONMENT TO FUNCTION • ACTIVITY - THE RELATIVE DISTRIBUTION OF CONES Light Processing Image credit: http://www.kurzweilai.net/images/Photoreceptors.jpg

LIGHT ADAPTATION • KEY AGENT = PHOTOPIGMENT • LIGHT  BREAKS DOWN PHOTOPIGMENT • OVER TIME, THE [PHOTOPIGMENT] INCREASES • LIGHT  DARK (INTO THE ATTIC) – HARD TO SEE BECAUSE OF LOW [PHOTOPIGMNET]  HYPOSENSITIVE TO LIGHT – TIME TO ADJUST = TIME TO PRODUCE NEW PHOTOPIGMENT • DARK  LIGHT (OUT OF THE CLUB AT DAWN) – HARD TO SEE  HIGH [PHOTOPIGMENT]  HYPERSENSITIVITY TO LIGHT – TIME TO ADJUST = TIME TO BREAK DOWN PHOTOPIGMENT

COLOUR VISION Image credit: http://2013.igem.org/wiki/images/thumb/d/d5/Colour_wheels.png/500pxColour_wheels.png Image credit: http://artapprenticeonline.com/blog/wpcontent/uploads/2012/08/Fotolia_1876813_XS.jpg Image credit: http://vladoportos.sk/wp-content/uploads/prism.jpg • UNDERSTANDING COLOUR – WHAT COLOUR WOULD RESULT IF YOU MIX ALL THE COLOURS TOGETHER? White (Colour as light) Black (Colour as pigment)

THEORIES OF COLOUR VISION • TRICHROMATIC THEORY • OPPONENT PROCESS THEORY Image credit: http://www.chm.davidson.edu/vce/coordchem/RGB.jpg Image credit: http://psych.ucalgary.ca/PACE/VA-Lab/colourperceptionweb/theories.htm

TRICHROMATIC THEORY • PROPOSES THAT THERE ARE 3 DIFFERENT TYPES OF CONES IN THE RETINA THAT DIFFER IN TERMS OF THE WAVELENGTH OF LIGHT THEY ARE MOST SENSITIVE TO – SHORT (BLUE) – MEDIUM (GREEN) – LONG WAVELENGTHS (RED) • THE DIFFERENT SENSITIVITY OF THE CONES ALLOW OUR BRAINS TO KNOW WHICH COLOUR OF LIGHT ENTERS OUR EYES AT ANY GIVEN MOMENT

TCT AND COLOUR BLINDNESS • COLOUR BLINDNESS – RED/GREEN • 5% OF AMERICAN MALES – ACCOUNTED FOR BY MISSING ONE OF THE THREE CONES

HOWEVER TRICHROMATIC THEORY CANNOT EXPLAIN NEGATIVE AFTERIMAGES Image credit: http://blog.lib.umn.edu/huber195/psy1001spring12/image002.jpg

LOOK AT A BLANK SHEET OF PAPER

OPPONENT PROCESS THEORY • THREE TYPES OF CELLS – RED/GREEN – YELLOW/BLUE – BLACK/WHITE • COLOURS SELECTIVELY STIMULATE ONE OF THE TWO COLOURS

NEGATIVE AFTER IMAGE EFFECT • THE ORIGINAL IMAGE EXCITED ONE-HALF OF THE OPPONENT PROCESS CELLS (GREEN, BLACK, AND YELLOW) AND GRADUALLY EXHAUSTED THEIR ABILITY TO PRODUCE ACTION POTENTIALS • NORMALLY THE WHITE LIGHT REFLECTED OFF THE BLANK SHEET OF PAPER WOULD EXCITE ALL OPPONENT-PROCESS CELLS EQUALLY BUT DUE TO THE DEPRIVATION, ONLY THE INITIALLY UNDER STIMULATED CELLS ARE EXCITED (RED, WHITE, AND BLUE) Image credit: http://blog.lib.umn.edu/huber195/psy1001spring12/image002.jpg

UNITING THE TWO THEORIES • DIFFERENT MECHANISMS - DIFFERENT LOCATION ALONG VISUAL • • PATHWAY TRICHROMATIC CONES IN THE RETINA OPPONENT PROCESS CELLS IN THE RETINAL GANGLION CELLS Image credit: http://blog.lib.umn.edu/huber195/psy1001spring12/image002.jpg image credit: http://spie.org/Images/Graphics/Publications/FG04_P03_retina.jpg

SENSATION VS. PERCEPTION SENSATION PERCEPTION

Image credit: http://www.cse.buffalo.edu/~rapaport/575/vision PATHWAY OF LIGHT: RETINA TO CORTEX

(IN)VOLUNTARY VISUAL PERCEPTION • WHICH WAY ARE THE BALLS MOVING? • CAN YOU CHANGE THE PERCEPTION OF THEIR MOTION? – TO ROTATE • CLOCKWISE • COUNTER-CLOCKWISE – TO MOVE • LATERALLY • VERTICALLY • SUGGESTS VOLUNTARY CONTROL OF OUR PERCEPTION

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