Lecture #19 - Unit 5c - Dreams

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Information about Lecture #19 - Unit 5c - Dreams
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Published on March 1, 2014

Author: FraserNelson

Source: slideshare.net

PSYC 1110 INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY LECTURE #19 | UNIT 5C | FEBRUARY 28, 2014 INSTRUCTOR: FRASER NELSON

HOW TO IMPROVE YOUR SLEEP 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. HAVE A REGULAR ROUTINE LIMIT SCREEN TIME AT NIGHT RELAX BEFORE BED CONTROL YOUR CAFFEINE CONSUMPTION UNDERSTAND YOUR TEMPERATURE RHYTHM DON’T GO TO BED HUNGRY MAKE YOUR BED SLEEP-FRIENDLY EXERCISE

DREAMS

DREAM SURVEY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. DO YOU TYPICALLY REMEMBER YOUR DREAMS? YES NO HAVE YOU EVER BEEN ABLE TO CONTROL WHAT YOU DREAM ABOUT OR HOW YOUR DREAM UNFOLDS? YES NO HAVE YOU EVER DIED IN A DREAM? YES NO DO YOU HAVE A RECURRING DREAM? YES NO 1. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. IF YES, BRIEFLY DESCRIBE IT. HAVE YOU EVER DREAMED ABOUT DOING SOMETHING IMPOSSIBLE (E.G., FLYING, PLAYING MUSIC EVEN THOUGH YOU CAN’T)? YES NO HAVE YOU EVER HAD A DREAM IN WHICH ONE PERSON TRANSFORMED INTO ANOTHER? YES NO DO YOUR DREAMS OFTEN CONTAIN INCONSISTENCIES (E.G., YOU KNOW IT’S YOUR HOUSE OR YOUR ROOM BUT IT DOESN’T LOOK LIKE IT’S SUPPOSE TO)? YES NO DO YOU EVER DREAM ABOUT CELEBRITIES? YES NO 1. IF YES, WHICH ONES? DO YOU INCORPORATE OUTSIDE NOISES INTO YOUR DREAM (E.G., AN ALARM CLOCK, A TELEPHONE RING)? YES NO HAVE YOU EVER DREAMED ABOUT: 1. A SEXUAL EXPERIENCE? YES NO 2. BEING NAKED IN PUBLIC? YES NO 3. KILLING SOMEONE? YES NO 4. FINDING MONEY? YES NO 5. BEING ATTACKED OR PURSUED? YES NO

WHY DO WE DREAM? 1. CELESTIAL COMMUNICATION 2. DREAMS AS UNCONSCIOUS WISHES 3. DREAMS AS EFFORTS TO DEAL WITH OUR PROBLEMS 4. DREAMS AS RANDOM BRAIN ACTIVITY 1. COGNITIVE APPROACH 2. ACTIVATION-SYNTHESIS THEORY

CELESTIAL COMMUNICATION • GOD SPOKE TO ME IN A DREAM! • THIS IDEA HAS BEEN REVISITED TIME AND AGAIN IN HISTORY – E.G. MOSES IN THE BIBLE • AND HE SAID, HEAR NOW MY WORDS: IF THERE BE A PROPHET AMONG YOU, KNOWN UNTO HIM IN A VISION, AND WILL SPEAK UNTO HIM IN A DREAM. – NUMBERS 12:6-8, KING JAMES VERSION (KJV) I THE LORD WILL MAKE MYSELF

DREAMS AS UNCONSCIOUS WISHES • FREUDIAN APPROACH • DREAMS ARE THE ‘ROYAL ROAD TO THE UNCONSCIOUS’ • IN THEM WE ARE ABLE TO EXPRESS OUR UNCONSCIOUS WISHES AND DESIRES, WHICH ARE OFTEN SEXUAL AND/OR VIOLENT IN NATURE • FEATURES IN DREAMS ARE IMBUED WITH HIDDEN MEANING AND BY UNDERSTANDING OUR DREAMS, WE CAN BETTER UNDERSTANDING OUR UNCONSCIOUS SELVES • LATENT VS. MANIFEST CONTENT IN DREAMS – THE PRESENCE OF A ROCKET IN A DREAM WOULD BE MANIFEST CONTENT, BUT ITS LATENT CONTENT WOULD REFER TO WHAT THE ROCKET SYMBOLIZES (E.G. MALE SEX ORGAN)

DREAMS AS EFFORTS TO DEAL WITH OUR PROBLEMS • DREAMS REFLECT THE ONGOING CONSCIOUS PREOCCUPATIONS FROM OUR WAKING LIVES – CONCERNS OVER RELATIONSHIPS, WORK, SEX, OR HEALTH • EVIDENCE – DREAMS OFTEN INCLUDE REFERENCES TO EVENTS/CONCERNS OF THE SLEEPING INDIVIDUAL • E.G. STUDENT’S DREAMS TEND TO INCLUDE ACADEMIC CONCERNS

LUCID DREAMS • A DREAM IN WHICH THE INDIVIDUAL BECOMES CONSCIOUSLY AWARE THAT THEY ARE IN A DREAM AND WHERE THE INDIVIDUAL FEELS AGENCY TO CHANGE DIFFERENT ASPECTS OF THE DREAM • OFTEN PORTRAYED IN CINEMA – EXAMPLES INCLUDE: THE MATRIX, INCEPTION, VANILLA SKY, ETC.

DREAMS AS THINKING (COGNITIVE APPROACH) • DREAMING SIMPLY ARISES AS A RESULT OF BRAIN ACTIVITY – THE SAME BRAIN ACTIVITY THAT WOULD BE SEEN WHEN WE ARE AWAKE – JUST WITHOUT BEING INTERRUPTED BY SENSORY INFORMATION FROM OUR EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT AND WITHOUT THE NEED TO GENERATE MOTOR MOVEMENTS • ALSO POSITS THAT THE INTRICACY OF OUR DREAMS IS DETERMINED BY THE STAGE OF BRAIN-DEVELOPMENT OF AN INDIVIDUAL • FOR A TODDLER, WHOSE BRAIN IS STILL DEVELOPING, DREAMS ARE VERY SIMPLISTIC IN NATURE AND ARE VERY SENSE-DRIVEN (MORE INTENSE VISUALLY) • WHEN OUR BRAINS FULLY MATURE (AROUND THE AGE OF 25 ON AVERAGE), OUR DREAMS BECOME MUCH MORE COMPLEX, DYNAMIC, AND FOLLOW A CONSISTENT NARRATIVE

ACTIVATION-SYNTHESIS THEORY • KEY THINKER - HOBSON • DREAMS RESULT FROM THE INTERPRETATIONS BY HIGHER AREAS OF THE BRAIN OF SPONTANEOUS NEURAL FIRING IN LOWER AREAS OF THE BRAINSTEM • THE NEURAL FIRING IS RANDOM AND THUS THE FEATURES IN DREAMS ARE WITHOUT LATENT-MEANING BUT THE METHOD OF INTERPRETATION OF THIS NEURAL FIRING BY THE HIGHER-BRAIN AREAS (E.G. CEREBRUM) DOES GIVE RESEARCHERS INSIGHT INTO HOW THE BRAIN ORGANIZES INCOMING SENSORY INFORMATION

REM AND DREAMING • DOES THE ‘RAPID EYE MOVEMENT’ CHARACTERIZING REM SLEEP CORRESPOND TO THE SUBJECT’S DREAM? • RECALL THAT BRAIN-ACTIVITY RECORDED BY EEG HAS SHOWN THAT REM-STAGE ACTIVITY RESEMBLES OUR BRAIN-ACTIVITY WHEN WE ARE AWAKE • BUT, DO DREAMS ONLY APPEAR IN REM-STAGE SLEEP?

LIMITATIONS OF DREAM THEORIES • DREAMS AS UNCONSCIOUS WISHES • ARE FEATURES WITIH DREAMS IN FACT IMBUED WITH HIDDEN (LATENT) MEANING? SOMETIMES A CIGAR IS JUST A CIGAR (FREUD) • DREAM ANALYSIS IS HIGHLY-SUBJECTIVE AND HAS LOW RELIABILITY, CALLING INTO QUESTION THE GENERALIZABILITY OF THESE IDEAS • DREAMING AS A WAY TO SOLVE PROBLEMS • MAKE SURE TO PAY ATTENTION TO THE GREAT DEBATE ON TUESDAY • ACTIVATION-SYNTHESIS THEORY • NOT ALL DREAMS ARISE ‘RANDOMLY’ AND HENCE ARE NON-SENSICAL IN THEIR CONTENT, THAT IS, IT CANNOT EXPLAIN THE COHERENT STORYLIKE DREAMS THAT ARE OFTEN REPORTED BY SUBJECTS IN SLEEP RESEARCH • AST DOESN’T ACCOUNT WELL FOR DREAMING OUTSIDE OF REM-SLEEP STAGES, AS BRAIN-ACTIVITY IN NON-REM SLEEP AND PARTICULARLY IN STAGE 3, 4 DOESN’T RESEMBLE WAKING STATE BRAIN ACTIVITY (PRESENCE OF HIGH AMPLITUDE, LOW FREQUENCY DELTA WAVES VS. LOW AMPLITUDE, HIGH FREQUENCY BETA WAVES) • COGNITIVE APPROACH • YET TO BE PROVEN WRONG OR RIGHT BY PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH • CURRENTLY THIS COULD PROVIDE THE ‘BEST-GUESS’ EXPLANATION FOR DREAMING

HAVE A FANTASTIC WEEKEND! END OF LECTURE

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