Lecture #18 - Unit 5b - Sleep ii

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Information about Lecture #18 - Unit 5b - Sleep ii
Education

Published on March 1, 2014

Author: FraserNelson

Source: slideshare.net

PSYC 1110 INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY LECTURE *18 | UNIT 5B | FEBRUARY 26, 2014 INSTRUCTOR: FRASER NELSON

CHAPTER 5: LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. WHAT IS A CIRCADIAN RHYTHM AND HOW IS IT AFFECTED BY THE HYPOTHALAMUS AND HORMONES? DESCRIBE THE CONCEPT OF ENTRAINMENT. WHERE IS THE CURRENTLY SUPPORTED LOCATION OF THE BODY’S ENDOGENOUS CLOCK? UNDERSTAND THE CONCEPT OF SLEEP HYGIENE AND BE ABLE TO DESCRIBE 4 STRATEGIES FOR IMPROVING YOUR SLEEP HOW MANY STAGES OF NON-REM SLEEP ARE THERE AND WHAT ARE THE CHARACTERISTICS OF EACH STAGE? HOW DOES REM SLEEP DIFFER FROM NON-REM SLEEP AND WHY REM SLEEP IS IMPORTANT. HOW DOES THE BODY CYCLE THROUGH THE STAGES OF SLEEP DURING A NIGHT’S REST? WHAT ARE SOME OF THE CONSEQUENCES OF SLEEP DEPRIVATION? WHAT ARE SOME OF THE BENEFITS OF A GOOD NIGHT’S SLEEP? WHAT ARE FOUR EXPLANATIONS OF THE SIGNIFICANCE OF DREAMING? WHAT ARE THE SIX MAIN CONCLUSIONS THAT CAN BE REACHED ABOUT THE NATURE OF HYPNOSIS? WHAT IS THE DISSOCIATION EXPLANATION OF HYPNOSIS? WHAT IS THE SOCIOCOGNITIVE EXPLANATION OF HYPNOSIS? WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN STIMULANTS AND DEPRESSANTS? WHAT EFFECTS DO OPIATES AND PSYCHEDELIC DRUGS HAVE ON HUMAN CONSCIOUSNESS? HOW DO DRUGS AFFECT BEHAVIOUR AT A PHYSIOLOGICAL LEVEL? HOW DO DRUGS AFFECT BEHAVIOUR AT A PSYCHOLOGICAL LEVEL?

ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS 1. WHAT IS SLEEP? 2. WHY DO WE NEED TO SLEEP? 3. HOW IS SLEEP STUDIED? 4. WHAT DO WE KNOW ABOUT THE DIFFERENT STAGES OF SLEEP? 5. WHAT THE EFFECTS OF SLEEP DEPRIVATION? 6. HOW CAN WE ENSURE THAT WE HAVE A GOOD NIGHT OF SLEEP? 4-3

WHY DO WE SLEEP? • THINK ABOUT IT FROM – AN EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGIST’S PERSPECTIVE • SHARE YOUR ANSWER WITH YOUR NEIGHBOUR

SLEEP IS DANGEROUS • FROM AN EVOLUTIONARY POINT OF VIEW, WHY WOULD A SPECIES RETAIN THE TRAIT OF BEING RENDERED FUNCTIONALLY INCAPACITATED FOR A LARGE PORTION OF THEIR LIVES? – WHILE WE SLEEP WE CANNOT MONITOR THE ENVIRONMENT FOR PREDATORS – OUR MUSCLES AND OUR SENSES WEAKEN IN THEIR ABILITY TO RESPOND TO THREAT – WE ARE ESSENTIALLY ‘SITTING DUCKS’ (EXTREMELY VULNERABLE)

PRESERVATION AND PROTECTION THEORY • SLEEP ALLOWS US TO PRESERVE ENERGY • SLEEP PROTECTS INDIVIDUALS DURING THE PORTIONS OF THE 24-HOUR DAY WHEN THERE IS RELATIVELY LITTLE VALUE AND CONSIDERABLE DANGER IN MOVING AROUND • HUMANS ARE HIGHLY VISUAL CREATURE WHO NEED LIGHT TO FIND FOOD AND DO OTHER THINGS NECESSARY FOR SURVIVAL – AT NIGHT IT WAS PROBABLY BEST FOR US TO BE TUCKED AWAY ASLEEP IN A CAVE OR OTHER HIDING PLACE SO AS NOT TO BE TEMPTED TO WALK ABOUT AND RISK FALLING OVER A CLIFF OR BEING ATTACKED BY A NOCTURNAL PREDATOR Copyright © 2010 Worth Publishing

WHY WE SLEEP • EXACT FUNCTION OF SLEEP UNCLEAR BUT ALLOWS FOR CERTAIN PROCESSES TO OCCUR: – – – – – – BODY ELIMINATES WASTE PRODUCTS FROM MUSCLES REPAIRS CELLS CONSERVES & REPLENISHES ENERGY STORES STRENGTHENS IMMUNE SYSTEM RECOVERS ABILITIES LOST DURING THE DAY NECESSARY FOR NORMAL MENTAL FUNCTIONING Copyright © 2013 Pearson 5-7

CONSEQUENCES OF SLEEP DEPRIVATION • ACUTE VS. CHRONIC EFFECTS • CHRONIC • DEFN: MORE THAN 40 HOURS OF SLEEPLESSNESS • MICROSLEEPS (3-15 SECONDS) • TOTAL DEPRIVATION • HALLUCINATIONS  DELUSIONS  DEATH • ACUTE EFFECTS • DEFN: UNDER 40 HOURS OF SLEEPLESSNESS • COGNITIVE EFFECTS • MOTOR-RESPONSE EFFECTS

BENEFITS OF SLEEP • SLEEP IMPROVES – – – – – MENTAL FUNCTIONING MEMORY PROBLEM SOLVING ALERTNESS EMOTIONAL CONTROL • BUT HOW MUCH SLEEP DO WE NEED?

HOW MUCH SLEEP DO WE NEED? • NO RIGHT ANSWER • FACTORS – AGE • BABIES - 16-18 HOURS/DAY • TEENS - 8-10 HOURS/DAY • ADULTS - 8 (OPTIMAL) - 6.2 AVERAGE (US, 2010) – LIFESTYLE • WORK-SCHEDULE – GENETICS • EARLY-BIRD/NIGHT-OWL • QUALITY OVER QUANTITY – SLEEP BETTER

SLEEP DISORDERS • INSOMNIA • SLEEP APNEA • NARCOLEPSY

INSOMNIA • MOST COMMON SLEEPING DISORDER • DEFINITION – INABILITY TO SLEEP OR STAY ASLEEP (OR BOTH) • TYPES – TRANSIENT • LESS THAN 1 WEEK – ACUTE • LESS THAN A MONTH – CHRONIC • LONGER THAN A MONTH • FACTORS – STRESS, GRIEF, INTERNAL DESYNCHRONIZATION, CHRONIC PAIN, ANXIETY, DEPRESSION, SUBSTANCE ABUSE

SLEEP APNEA • DISORDER WHERE PERSON STOPS BREATHING WHILE SLEEPING • TYPES – CENTRAL SLEEP APNEA • BRAIN STOPS SENDING SIGNALS TO DIAPHRAGM – UPPER AIRWAY SLEEP APNEA • SLEEP CAUSES LOSS OF MUSCLE TONE IN THROAT, TONGUE, AND LARYNX • SYMPTOMS – LOUD SNORING, SNORTING, GASPING – PERSON WILL WALK UP 20-300/NIGHT • OFTEN TIMES THEY ARE NOT AWARE OF WAKING  INSOMNIA • FACTORS – OBESITY, SUBSTANCE ABUSE

NARCOLEPSY • AFFECTS LESS THAN 1% OF POPULATION • BRIEF, UNCONTROLLABLE PERIODS OF REM SLEEP ACCOMPANIED BY MUSCLE PARALYSIS (CATAPLEXY) DURING ALERT PERIODS OF THE DAY – CATAPLEXY OCCURS IN 70% OF NARCOLEPTICS • CAUSE – LOSS OF CONTROL OF SLEEP/WAKE CYCLES • TREATMENT – NO CURE – PHARMACEUTICAL INTERVENTION (MODAFINIL) – GOOD SLEEP HYGIENE

HOW TO IMPROVE YOUR SLEEP 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. HAVE A REGULAR ROUTINE LIMIT SCREEN TIME AT NIGHT RELAX BEFORE BED CONTROL YOUR CAFFEINE CONSUMPTION MIND YOUR TEMPER(ATURE) DON’T GO TO BED HUNGRY MAKE YOUR BED SLEEP-FRIENDLY EXERCISE

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