Lecture 04 data resource management

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Information about Lecture 04 data resource management

Published on March 8, 2014

Author: AKHLAS

Source: slideshare.net


Data Resource Management

DATA RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Presented by: Dr. Akhlas Ahmed Lecture # 04 Preston University

File Organization: Terms & Concept  Binary: means composed of two pieces or two parts and may refer to: Mathematics: Binary number, a representation for numbers using only two digits (0 and 1) Binary relation, a mathematical relation involving two elements Binary function, a function in mathematics that takes two arguments Computing Binary file, composed of something other than human-readable text Executable, a type of binary file that contains machine code for the computer to execute Binary code, the digital representation of text and data

File Organization: Terms & Concept Multiples of bits Decimal Value 1000 10002 10003 10004 10005 10006 10007 10008 Value 1024 10242 10243 10244 10245 10246 10247 8 Metric kbit Mbit Gbit Tbit Pbit Ebit Zbit Ybit Kbit Mbit Gbit - kilobit megabit gigabit terabit petabit exabit zettabit yottabit Binary JEDEC kilobit megabit gigabit - Kibit Mibit Gibit Tibit Pibit Eibit Zibit IEC kibibit mebibit gibibit tebibit pebibit exbibit zebibit

File Organization: Terms & Concept •    Bit: A bit is the basic unit of information in computing and digital communications. A bit can have only one of two values, and may therefore be physically implemented with a twostate device. The most common representation of these values are 0and1. The term bit is a contraction of binary digit. Smallest unit of data; binary digit (0,1) Byte: Group of bits that represents a single character Field: Group of words or a complete number

File Organization: Terms & Concept  Record: Group of related fields  File: Group of records of same type  Database: Group of related files

Data Hierarchy: in a Computer System Figure 7-1

File Organization: Terms & Concept  Entity: Person, place, thing, event about which information is maintained  Attribute: Description of a particular entity  Key field: Identifier field used to retrieve, update, sort a record


Problems with the Traditional File Environment  Data redundancy Data redundancy occurs in database systems which have a field that is repeated in two or more tables. o Program-Data dependence A Flow dependency, also known as a data dependency or true dependency or read-after-write (RAW), occurs when an instruction depends on the result of a previous instruction: 1. A = 3 2. B = A 3. C = B    Lack of flexibility Poor security Lack of data-sharing and availability

Traditional File Processing Figure 7-3

Database Management System (DBMS) • Creates and maintains databases • Eliminates requirement for data definition statements • Acts as interface between application programs and physical data files • Separates logical and physical views of data

The Contemporary Database Environment

Components of DBMS • Data definition language: Specifies content and structure of database and defines each data element • Data manipulation language: Manipulates data in a database • Data dictionary: Stores definitions of data elements, and data characteristics

Sample Data Dictionary Report Figure 7-5

Types of Databases • Relational DBMS • Hierarchical and Network DBMS • Object-Oriented Databases

Relational DBMS • Represents data as two-dimensional tables called relations • Relates data across tables based on common data element • Examples: DB2, Oracle, MS SQL Server

Relational Data Model Figure 7-6

Three Basic Operations in a Relational Database • Select: Creates subset of rows that meet specific criteria • Join: Combines relational tables to provide users with information • Project: Enables users to create new tables containing only relevant information

Three Basic Operations in a Relational Database Figure 7-7

Hierarchical and Network DBMS Hierarchical DBMS • Organizes data in a tree-like structure • Supports one-to-many parent-child relationships • Prevalent in large legacy systems

Hierarchical DBMS Figure 7-8

Hierarchical and Network DBMS Network DBMS • Depicts data logically as many-to-many relationships

Network DBMS Figure 7-9

Hierarchical and Network DBMS Disadvantages  Outdated  Less flexible compared to RDBMS  Lack support for ad-hoc and English language-like queries

Object-Oriented Databases  Object-oriented DBMS: Stores data and procedures as objects that can be retrieved and shared automatically  Object-relational DBMS: Provides capabilities of both object-oriented and relational DBMS

Querying Databases: Elements of SQL Basic SQL Commands  SELECT:  FROM: Specifies columns Identifies tables or views  WHERE: Specifies conditions

Results of SELECT Statement

Results of Conditional Selection 137 150 Door latch Door seal 22.50 6.00

Projection from Joining PART and SUPPLIER Tables

Designing Databases  Conceptual design: Abstract model of database from a business perspective  Physical design: Detailed description of business information needs

Designing Databases  Entity-relationship diagram: Methodology for documenting databases illustrating relationships between database entities  Normalization: Process of creating small stable data structures from complex groups of data



CREATING A DATABASE ENVIRONMENT An Normalized Relation of ORDER Figure 7-15

Distributing Databases Centralized database  Used by single central processor or multiple processors in client/server network

Distributing Databases Distributed database  Stored in more than one physical location  Partitioned database  Duplicated database

Distributing Databases Figure 7-16

Management Requirements for Database Systems Key elements in a database environment:  Data Administration  Data Planning and Modeling Methodology  Database Technology and Management  Users

Management Requirements for Database Systems Figure 7-17

Multidimensional Data Analysis On-line analytical processing (OLAP)  Multidimensional data analysis  Supports manipulation and analysis of large volumes of data from multiple dimensions/perspectives

Multidimensional Data Model Figure 7-18

Data Warehousing and Datamining Data warehouse  Supports reporting and query tools  Stores current and historical data  Consolidates data for management analysis and decision making

Components of Data Warehouse Figure 7-19

Data Warehouse and data mining Data mart  Subset of data warehouse  Contains summarized or highly focused portion of data for a specified function or group of users

Data Warehouse and data mining Datamining  Tools for analyzing large pools of data  Find hidden patterns and infer rules to predict trends

Benefits of Data Warehouse  Improved and easy accessibility to information  Ability to model and remodel the data

Database and the web Hypermedia database • Organizes data as network of nodes • Links nodes in pattern specified by user • Supports text, graphic, sound, video and executable programs

Database Trends A Hypermedia Database Figure 7-20

Database Trends Databases and the Web Database server  Computer in a client/server environment runs a DBMS to process SQL statements and perform database management tasks Application server  Software handling all application operations

Database Trends Linking Internal Databases to the Web Figure 7-21

Thank You

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