Published on March 8, 2014
HARDWARE: Input Devices – Processing – Output Devices Presented by: Dr. Akhlas Ahmed Preston University
Objectives… Define the term Hardware Identify advantages of Hardware in organization. Describe Hardware Components, and explain each component.
What is hardware? Hardware refers to the physical components of a computer and devices that perform the input, processing, storage, and output activities of the computer. Hardware can support objective of the information system, and goal of organization.
Advantages of hardware in Organization Organization invest in computer hardware to improve worker productivity, increase revenue, reduce cost, and provide better customer service, Speed up time-to-market, and enable collaboration among employees.
Computer System: Integrating the Power of Technology Hardware Components Central Processing Unit (CPU): • CPU and memory cooperate to execute data processing. • Consist three elements: Arithmetic/logic unit, control unit, and register. Arithmetic/logic unit (ALU): • Parts of CPU used to perform mathematical calculation and make logical comparisons. Control Unit: • The part of CPU sequentially accesses program instructions, decodes them, and coordinates the flow of data in and out of the ALU, the register.
Computer System: Integrating the Power of Technology Register: • High-speed storage areas used to temporarily hold small units of program instruction and data immediately before, during, and after execution by the CPU. Primary Storage: • Primary Storage, or Main memory, provides working storage for program instructions and data to be processed and provides them to the CPU.
Hardware Component in Action
Processing and Memory Devices Processing characteristics and function: • Machine cycle: make up from both instruction phase and execution phase. • Machine cycle: can be measured how many instruction are executed in a second. It is measured in Nanosecond, Picosecond, MIPS • Clock Speed: Computer system processing speed is affected by clock speed, which is measured in gigahertz (GHz).
Processing and Memory Devices Memory characteristics and function: • Main Memory: provides temporary working storages area for programs and data. It is measured in byte. Type of memory: • RAM (Random Access Memory) -> store data and instruction temporarily • ROM (Read Only Memory) -> instruction and data are stored permanently • Cache Memory -> a type of high-speed memory that CPU can access more rapidly than main memory.
Multiprocessing Multiprocessing: • Refer to simultaneous execution of two or more instruction at the same time. • One form of multiprocessing uses coprocessor, which can speed up processing. • Multicore microprocessor combines two or more independent processors into a single computer so they can share the workload.
Parallel Computing Parallel Computing: • Refer to simultaneous execution of the same task on multiple processors to obtain results faster. • Massively parallel processing involves linking many processors to work together to solve complex problems. • Grid computing is the use of a collection of computers to work in a coordinated manner to solve a common problem.
Secondary Storage Secondary Storage: • Store a large amount of data and instruction safely and effectively. Access Methods: • Data and information access can be sequential or direct. • Sequential Access: data must be accessed in the order in which it is stored. • Direct Access: data can be accessed directly. Without the need to pass by other data in sequences.
Secondary Storage Secondary Storage: • Magnetic storage devices - magnetic tape - magnetic disk • Optical storage devices - CD-ROM - DVD • Solid State Storage Devices - Store data in memory chips. Eg: flash drive. • Enterprise storage option - NAS - SAN
Input and Output Devices Input Devices: • A devices used to entry data to computer system. • Input devices come in many forms. - Personal Computer Input Devices (Mouse, Keyboard..) - Speech recognition technology. - Digitals Cameras - Scanning devices - Bar-code scanners Output Devices: • Provide output to user in many forms. - Display Monitor - Printer and plotter - Digital Audio Players
Computer Systems Computer Systems • Generally divided into two categories: single user and multiple users. Single-Users • Systems include handheld, ultra laptop, portable, thin client, desktop, and workstation computers. Multi-Users • Systems include servers, blade servers, mainframes, and supercomputers.
Green Computing Green Computing : is concerned with the efficient and environmentally responsible design, manufacture, operation, and disposal of IS –related products. Three main goal: • Reduce the use of hazardous material • Lower power-related costs • Enable the safe disposal or recycling of IT Products.
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