Published on March 8, 2014
INFORMATION SYSTEMS Presented by: Dr. Akhlas Ahmed Lecture # 01 Preston University
Information The value of information is directly linked to how it helps decision makers achieve the organization’s goals. Models, computers, and information systems are constantly making it possible for organizations to improve the way they conduct business.
Information Knowing the potential impact of information systems and having the ability to put this knowledge to work can result in a successful personal career, organizations that reach their goals, and a society with a higher quality of life. System users, business managers, and information systems professionals must work together to build a successful information system.
Information System Concepts An Information System is a set of interrelated components that collect, manipulate, and disseminate data and information and provide a feedback mechanism to meet an objective. ATM, Barcode Scanners, airline reservation systems, course reservation systems, KIOSKS with touch screen are just examples of Information System.
Data VS Information DATA consists of raw facts, such as an employee’s name, employee’s number, address, number of days worked in a week, and sales order. When these facts are organized or arranged in a meaningful manner, they become Information.
Data VS Information Types of Data Data Represented By Alphanumeric Data Numbers, letters, and other characters Image Data Graphic images and pictures Audio Data Sound, noise, and tones Video Data Moving images and pictures
Data VS Information Information is a collection of facts organized in a such a way that they have additional value beyond the value of the facts themselves. For Example, a particular manager might find the knowledge of total monthly sales more suited to his purpose than the number of sales for individual sales representatives.
Defining and Organizing Relationships among Data Creates Information As we have stated, data – simply, raw facts – has little value beyond its existence. For example, consider data as pieces of railroad track in a model rail road kit. In this state, each piece of track as little value beyond its inherent value as a single object.
Defining and Organizing Relationships among Data Creates Information However, if some relationship is defined among the pieces of the track, they will gain value. Information is much the same. Rules and relationships can be set up to organize data into useful, valuable information.
Defining and Organizing Relationships among Data Creates Information Adding new or different data means relationships can be redefined and new information can be created. For instance, adding new pieces to the track can greatly increase the value of the final product.
The process of Transforming Data into Information
The Characteristics of Valuable Information Characteristics Definitions Accurate Accurate information is error free. In some cases, inaccurate information is generated because inaccurate data is fed into the transformation process (this is commonly called garbage in, garbage out [GIGO]) Complete Complete information contains all the important facts. For example, an investment report that does not include all important costs is not complete. Economical Information should also be relatively economical to produce. Decision makes must always balance the balance of information with the cost of producing it. Flexible Flexible information can be used for a variety of purposes. For example, information on how much inventory is on hand for a particular part can be used by a sales representative in closing a sale and by a production manager to determine whether more inventory is needed.
The Characteristics of Valuable Information Characteristics Definitions Reliable Reliable information can be depended on. In many cases, the reliability of the information depends on the reliability of the data collection method. Relevant Relevant information to the decision maker. Information that lumber prices might drop may not be relevant to a computer chip manufacturer. Simple Information should also be simple, not overly complex. Sophisticated and detailed information may not be needed. In fact, too much information can cause information overload. Timely Verifiable Timely information is delivered when it is needed. Information should be verifiable. This means that you can check it to make sure it is correct, perhaps by checking many sources for the same information.
The Characteristics of Valuable Information Characteristics Definitions Accessible Information should be easily accessible by authorized users to be obtained in the right format and at the right time to meet their needs. Secure Information should be secure from access by unauthorized users.
System and Modeling Concepts
System A set of elements or components that interact to accomplish goals Input Processing mechanism Output System boundary Defines the limits of a system and distinguishes it from everything else (the environment) Feedback
Components of a System A system’s four components consist of Input, Processing, Output, and Feedback. Feedback mechanism involves your assessment of how clean the car is.
Example of Systems and Their Elements and Goals Elements System Inputs Coffee beans, tea bags, water, sugar, cream, spices, pastries, other ingredients, labor, management. Students, professors, administrators, textbooks, equipment Processing Mechanism Goal Outputs Brewing equipment Coffee, tea, pastries, other beverages and food items. Quickly prepared delicious coffee, teas and various food items. Teaching, research, service Educated students; meaningful research, service to community, state, and nation Acquisition of knowledge
Systems Classification and Their Primary Characteristics
System Performance and Standards Efficiency: output/input (A measure of what is produced divided by what is consumed) Effectiveness: extent to which system attains its goals Performance standard: specific objective of a system
System Performance and Standards A system performance standard for a particular marketing campaign might be to have each sales representatives sell $100,000 for a certain type of product each year
System Performance and Standards A system performance standard for a certain manufacturing process might be to have no more than 1 percent defective parts Once standards are established, system performance is measured and compared with the standard. Variances from the standard are determinants of system performance. Achieving system performance standards may also require trade-offs in terms of cost, control, and complexity.
System Variables and Parameters System variable – quantity or item controlled by decision-maker. The price a company charges for its product is a system variable because it can be controlled. System parameter – value or quantity that cannot be controlled, such as the cost of a raw material.
System Modeling Concepts An abstraction or an approximation that is used to represent reality
Modeling a System A model is an abstraction that is used to represent reality 4 major types of models A narrative model A physical model A schematic model A mathematical model
Modeling a System A narrative model is based on words Logical, not physical A sales person verbally describing a product’s competition to a sales manager.
Modeling a System A physical model is tangible representation of reality. A builder may develop a scale model of a new shopping center to give a potential investor information about the overall appearance and approach of the development
Modeling a System A schematic model is a graphic representation of reality Graphs and charts A blueprint for a new building, a graph that shows budget and financial projections, electrical wiring diagrams, and graphs that show when certain tasks or activities must be completed to stay on schedule. Program Flowcharts shows how computer programs are to be developed and Data Flow Diagrams are used to reveal how data flows through the organization.
Modeling a System A mathematical model is an arithmetic representation of reality Standard templates to identify all the tasks, efforts, and elapsed time associated with each task for planning, building, and opening a new store.
What Is An Information System?
Components of Information System Feedback Input Processing Feedback is critical operation of a system to the Output successful
Computer-Based Information Systems (CBIS)
Computer Based Information Systems A Computer Based Information System is single set of hardware, software, databases, telecommunications, people, and procedures that are configured to collect, manipulate, store, and process data into information. A company’s payroll system and order entry systems are examples of CBIS.
CBIS – Business Technology Infrastructure All the hardware, software, databases, telecommunications, people, and procedures that are configured to collect, manipulate, store, and process data into information.
Computer Based Information Systems Hardware Computer equipment used to perform input, processing, and output activities. Software The computer programs that govern the operation of the computer. System Software: Controls basic computer operations such as start-up and printing. Application Software: Allows specific tasks to be accomplished such as word processing, image processing and tabulating numbers.
Computer Based Information Systems Database Telecommunications An organized collection of facts and information. The electronic transmission of signals for communications; enables organizations to carry out their process and tasks through effective computer networks. Networks Connected computers and computer equipment in a building, around the country, or around the world to enable electronic communications.
Computer Based Information Systems Internet The world’s largest computer network, actually consisting of thousands of interconnected networks, all freely exchanging information. Intranet: An internal network based on Web technologies that allows people within an organization to exchange information and work on projects. Extranet: A network based on Web technologies that allows selected outsiders, such as business partners and customers, to access authorized resources of the intranet of a company. People Information System personnel include all the people who manage, run program, and maintain the system. Procedures The strategies, policies, methods and rules for using CBIS.
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